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One of the major causes of backwardness in Pakistan is the curse of mafia-based political families, who have a choke hold on Pakistan’s economy.  These families are not only corrupt, but also hold a svengali grip on Pakistan’s economy.  Over 120 million people Pakistan are are direct victims of the these Economic Nazis.  The number runs into a few thousand people, but they have suppressed, a nation 180 million.  Here is a list of these political cancerous lesion on Pakistan’s body politics. These wealthy families are blood sucking leeches and are like parasitic worms on the nation.  Their children study in elite universities in UK, US, and Australia.  Their children are also hypocrites (munafiqs), when they act as being advocates of down-trodden.  They get they initial education in elite institutions like Aitchison College Lahore, Lawrence College,Ghora Gali, LUMS, Cadet College, Petaro, and a host of English-medium schools. One days fee for the children of elites is enough to feed a farming Pakistani for a whole year. While 180 Million Pakistanis barely eke a living, these Vultures on Pakistan’s Wealth have gnawed the meat on its skeletal remains. They are the biggest proponents of democracy and use it as a weapon to subjugate 180 Million others. While poor people in FATA and Thar starve to death, these Pakistani Romans Praetorians are enjoying their bacchanalian feasts in Islamabad (Islam’s bastion) with prostitutes imported from Central Asia Republics.





Bhutto Family

The members of Bhutto family (Urdu: خاندان بھٹو) in politics:

▪   Pir Bux Bhutto

▪   Doda Khan Bhutto

▪   Khuda Bux Bhutto, Ameer Bux Bhutto, Illahi Bux Bhutto (Honorary Magistrate Larkana District)

▪   Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Rasul Bux Bhutto.

▪   Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto– The Dewan of Junagadh and the Father of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Member Bombay Council).

▪   Sardar Wahid Baksh Bhutto – (born 1898, died 25 December 1931) was a landowner of Sindh, an elected representative to the Central Legislative Assembly and an educational philanthropist.

▪   Nawab Nabi Bux Bhutto (Member, Central Legislative Assembly)

▪   Khan Bahadur Ahmad Khan Bhutto

▪   Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, son of Sir Shah Nawaz (President (1970–1973); Prime Minister (1973–1977))

▪   Sardar Mumtaz Bhutto, cousin of Zulfikar, (chief of Bhutto tribe, former chief minister and Governor of Sindh, Federal Minister of Pakistan)

▪   Nusrat Bhutto, wife of Zulfikar (former minister without portfolio)

▪   Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar (Prime Minister, 1988–1990 and 1993–1996), assassinated December 27, 2007.

▪   Murtaza Bhutto, elder son of former Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the brother of former Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto. He was usually known as Murtaza Bhutto and was assassinated under mysterious circumstances.

▪   Shahnawaz Bhutto, Shahnawaz was studying in Switzerland when Zia ul Haq’s military regime executed his father in 1979. Prior to the execution On July 18, 1985, the 27 year old Shahnawaz was found dead in Nice, France. He died under mysterious circumstances.

▪   Fatima Bhutto, Fatima was born in Kabul, Afghanistan while her father Murtaza Bhutto was in exile during the military regime of General Zia ul Haq. Murtaza Bhutto, was son of former Pakistan’s President and Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.

▪   Ameer Bux Bhutto, currently Vice President of Sindh National Front and also ex-Member of Sindh Assembly. He is son of Sardar Mumtaz Bhutto.

▪   Ali Hyder Bhutto, younger son of Sardar Mumtaz Ali Bhutto and brother of Ameer Bux Bhutto.

▪   Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Jr, his father Murtaza Bhutto was in exile during the military regime of General Zia ul Haq. Murtaza Bhutto, was son of former Pakistan’s President and Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.

Sharif Family

▪   Nawaz Sharif, Former Prime Minister of Pakistan

▪   Shahbaz SharifChief Minister of Punjab

▪   Hamza Shahbaz Shareef, Son of Shahbaz Shareef, Member National Assembly of Pakistan

Soomro Family

The members of Soomro family (Urdu: خاندان سومرو) in politics are:

▪   Sardar Mohammad Usman Khan Soomro, Member of Legislative Assembly, 1937–1945

▪   Khan Bahadur Allah Bux Soomro, Twice Chief Minister of Sindh

▪   Khan Bahadur Maula Bux Soomro, Ex Federal and Provincial Minister, was Chief advisor to Zia ul Haq

▪   Ahmad Mian Soomro, Parliamentarian, Deputy Speaker of the West Pakistan Assembly, Senator

▪   Elahi Bux Soomro, remained Member of National Assembly of Pakistan, Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan, Federal Minister

▪   Rahim Bux Soomro, Minister Sindh

▪   Mohammad Mian Soomro, remained President of PakistanPrime Minister of PakistanSenate of Pakistan andGovernor of Sindh

▪   Begum Saeeda Soomro District Nazim Jacobabad

▪   Mohammad Khan Soomro, s/o Sardar Usman Soomro, remained MPA and Member of National Assembly of Pakistan

▪   Iftikhar Soomro, MPA, Provincial Minister Sindh

▪   Mr. Justice Ghulam Nabi Soomro, Hon’ble Justice, High Court of Sindh, Presently Chairman of Sindh Services Tribunal

▪   Sardar Junaid Haider Soomro, MPA of Sindh Assembly

▪   Afzal Soomro, Chief Justice, High Court of Sindh

▪   Ayaz Soomro, Law Minister Sindh

▪   Jameel Ahmad Soomro, Minister Sindh

Chaudhrys of Gujrat

The members of Chaudhry Family

▪   Chaudhry Zahoor Elahi (Late) (A seasoned parliamentarian who played a major role in restoration of democracy and human rights in Pakistan)

▪   Chaudhry Shujat Hussain (Prime Minister of Pakistan – June – August 2004)

▪   Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi (Chief Minister of Punjab – October – 2002 to October 2007)

▪   Chaudhry Wajahat Hussain (Younger brother of Chaudhry Shujat Hussain,Member of National Assembly)

▪   Chaudhry Shafaat Hussain (Younger brother of Chaudhry Shujat Hussain and the District Nazim of Gujrat since 2001)

▪   Moonis Elahi (Son of Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi, Member of Punjab Assembly)

Jatoi Family

The members of Jatoi family in politics:

   Khan Bahadur Imam Bax Khan Jatoi

▪   Mir Abid Jatoi

   Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Ex-Acting Prime Minister of Pakistan

▪   Masroor Jatoi, Son of Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, MPA Sindh

▪   Abdul Hameed Khan Jatoi

▪   Liaqat Ali Khan Jatoi, Ex-Chief Minister Sindh, Federal Minister for Water and Power

Goraya Family

Prominent figures of the Goraya family:

▪   Jahan Khaan Goraya(politician)

▪   Chauhdry Sarfraz Khaan Goraya (MLA 1937 – 1969)

▪   Ghulam Rasool Goraya (MLA)

▪   Ch.Shahnawaz Goraya (MPA 1970 onwards)

Tanoli Family

▪   Nawab Muhammad Akram Khan ruler of amb Hazara

▪   Nawab Salah ud Din Khan (MNA)

▪   Habib ur Rehman Tanoli (Minister of Revenue)

▪   Sakhi Muhammad Tanoli

▪   Ghazala Habib Tanoli

▪   Malik Idrees Khan Nawabkhalli


Some Notables of Marwat Family are listed below;

▪   Khan Sahib Khan Faizullah Khan Ghazni Khel (Biggest Indian Musliam contractor, Member Legelsative Assembly 1937-46)

▪   Justice (Rtd) Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat (1901–1978)was a Meenakhel by origin,educated at Islamia College Peshawar, Edwardes College Peshawar, ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY. Was Justice of West Pakistan High Court, first & second Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan. Justice Khan Habibullah Khan also remained as an acting President of Pakistan, when the President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry went abroad. Pakistan’s Interior Minister and also Chief Minister of West Pakistan (One Unit).Was elected to the first ever Legislative Council of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (then NWFP) (1932) firsr as a member and later Deputy Speaker.

▪   Barrister Khan Saifullah Khan Ghazni Khel

▪   Khan Niamatullah Khan Ghazni Khel (Raees-e-Azam)

▪   Khan Abdur Rahim Khan Ghazni Khel ( Advocate of bannu, muslim league leader)

▪   Khan Dr Abdul Aziz Khan Ghazni Khel

▪   Khan Abdus Sattar Khan Ghazni Khel (second MNA from Bannu)

▪   Anwar Saifullah Khan (A sitting Parliamentarian, who earlier served as a Federal Minister twice)

▪   Senator Salim Saifullah Khan (former Federal Minister many times)

▪   Humayun Saifullah Khan, Member National Assembly of Pakistan

▪   Khan Muhammad Azeem Khan Meenakhel (Raees Lakki Marwat). (1912–1985). Younger brother of Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat. Remained CHAIRMAN Lakki Town Committee for 40 years (1937–1977).

▪   Muhammad Yousaf Khan Marwat Meenakhel (Lakki Marwat). (1930–1989). Elder son of Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat. Remained Senior Superintendent of Pakistan Railways Police SSP.

▪   Anwar Kamal Khan Marwat is a MeenaKhel by origin and a former Member of Provincial Assembly as well as a former Provincial Minister and Senator. Currently a General Secretary PML (N) Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

▪   (Justice) Shah Nawaz Khan was a Meenakhel by origin, who remained Chief Justice of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and also remained a Judge Supreme Court of Pakistan.

▪   Mohammad Saleem Khan Marwat, Meenakhel, Provincial Civil Service (Executive Branch), son of Khan Muhammad Azeem Khan Meenakhel (Born: 20-December-1938 – Died: 24-August-2009). Retired in 1998 from the status ofProvincial Secretary. He also remained as Managing Director (M.D) Frontier Education Foundation.

▪   Akhtar Munir Khan Marwat, a retired Captain of the Pakistan Army, is a Meenakhel by origin, and retired as Additional Federal Secretary (KANA) Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas to Government of Pakistan.

▪   Khan Mansoor Kamal Khan Marwat is Meenakhel by origin and son of Anwar Kamal Khan and grandson ofKhan Habibullah Khanis an engineer by profession and currently working for Orascom at Elite group of companies in Islamabad. He is also Divisional Chairman (BANNU) National Peace Counicil for Interfaith Harmony, (Ministry of Interior and Religious Affairs)

▪   Asadullah Khan Marwat, is Meenakhel by origin and grandson of KHAN HABIBULLAH KHAN MARWAT. He is presently working in Mobilink, Pakistan.

▪   Sanaullah Khan Marwat, is Meenakhel by origin and grandson of KHAN HABIBULLAH KHAN MARWAT. He is presently working in UNOPS as a SECURITY HEAD in Pakistan.

▪   Muhammad Akram Khan Meenakhel, Advocate, younger brother of Justice Shahnawaz Khan Meenakhel. Was elected MPA, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Assembly, Minister for Excise and Taxation in Arbab Jahangir,s Cabinet (1985–88)

▪   ABEEDULLAH JAN Khan (s/o Nasrullah Khan) also belongs to Meenakhel clan, has been Chief Conservator of Forests NWFPInspector General (IG) of Forests & Additional Secretary, Govt of Pakistan. He remainedMinister for Food & Agriculture & ForestsMember (Provincial) NWFP Public Service Commission and lately Advisor to Chief Minister NWFP.

▪   Tariq Humayun Khan Marwat (late), was MEENAKHEL by origin was a renowed Politician of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. He was a President Millat Awami Party (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) and was a close friend of Farooq Ahmad Khan Laghari (President of Pakistan.

▪   Ayub Khan Marwat is Meenakhel by origin. He is younger son of Justice Shah Nawaz Khan, Meenakhel and is presently working as District & Session Judge D. I Khan. He also worked as Special Judge, Anti-Terrorist Court.

▪   Lt. Col. Zafar Iqbal Marwat s/o Abeed Ullah Jan Khan is commanding a prestigious Armed Regiment of Pakistan Army.

▪   Umar Farooq Marwat s/o Abeed Ullah Jan is a renewed Telecom Engineer working for Nokia Siemens Networks, Germany.

▪   Shahid Nawaz Marwat s/o (L) Tariq Hamayun Marwat is heading a leading construction and property business in NWFP & Punjab.

▪   Jamil Nawaz Marwat s/o Abeed Ullah Jan is a Social Worker & Vice Chaiman of leading business of Peshawar.

▪   Imran Khan Marwat s/o Abeed Ullah Jan is a Software Engineer working for Nokia Siemens Networks, Pakistan.

▪   Barristor Abid Nawaz Marwat s/o (L) Tariq Hamayun Khan is Meenakhel by origin and presently Senior Vice President of PML (Q) Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

▪   Fareedullah Khan Meenakhel, Advocate. Son of ATTAULLAH KHAN MEENAKHEL (Rtd)SP, formarly CHAIRMAN Khidmat Committee Lakki presently Tehsil Nazim Lakki Marwat.

▪   Professor Abul Ghaffar Khan Marwat, Meenakhel (1935–2008), ISLAMIA COLLEGE Peshawar, Chiraman & Head of the Chemistry Department, Provost Islamia College Peshawar.

▪   Dr. Tariq Saleem Marwat – belongs to the Meenakhel clan of Marwat Tribe. Founder Chairman of the “Flag Society of Pakistan” . Has Authored two books Bacha Saqqa – the Bandit King of Afghanistan” and a collection of Urdu Poetry RAZ . Has also compiled a monograph / Research work on the MARWAT TRIBE, with the name Kaarwaan-e-Marwat (Un-Published). An ardent book lover and avid reader (bibliomaniac), owing a beautiful and precious / valuable Library MAKHZAN at his ancestral Raees-Khana with a formidable collection of antique weapons, old photos and other interesting and worth seeing artifacts.

▪   Abdur Rasheed Khan Marwat is Meenakhel by origin and is currently working as SP Traffic Police, Peshawar.

▪   Asif Kamal Marwat is Meenakhel by origin. He is the elder son of Muhammad Yousaf Khan and presently working asExcise & Taxiation Officer, Shangla

▪   Rauf Kamal Marwat is Meenakhel by origin. He is the younger son of Muhammad Yousaf Khan and presently working as a Social Worker and give his maximum of time to Politics.

▪   Khan Ghulam Daud Khan is Meenakhel by origin and he was Deputy Commissioner DC.

▪   Ibrahim Kamal Khan Marwat (Born: 1939 Died: 14-July-1985)is Meenakhel by origin and first appointed as Naib Tehsildar then remained Assistant Political Agent APA of Khyber Agency & Aurakzai Agency after that he remained Extra Assistant Commissioner EAC at Kohat.

▪   Dr. Ishtaiq Ahmad Khan Marwat also belongs to the Meenakhel clan. He is currently DIG (Investigation) Peshawar region.

▪   Waheed Khan Marwat is Meenakhel by origin and currently working as a DC custom (SINDH).

▪   Waris Kamal Khan Marwat is Meenakhel by origin and at present SP Railway, Peshawar.

▪   Muhammad Younas Khan Marwat also belongs to MEENAKHEL clan,was a former Chairman Area Electricity Board Peshawar

▪   Khan Arifullah Khan,is Meenakhel by origin he remained as District Naib Nazim of Lakki Marwat.

▪   Salman Saleem Marwat , Student Leader (Peoples Student Fedration ) (Govt. Post G. Collage, Lakki Marwat)

Hayat Family

This family are touts of Colonial Empires, during 1857 War of Independence, they spied for the British.

Prominent figures of the Hayat Family:

▪   Nawab Muhammad Hayat Khan

▪   Nawab Aslam Hayat Khan

▪   Nawab Muzaffar-Ali-Khan

▪   Nawab Ghulam Khan

▪   Nawab Ghulab Khan

▪   Sardar Masood Hayat

▪   Sardar Sir Liaquat Hyat Khan – served as Prime Minister of Patiala State in India & prior to that as Home Minister.

▪   Sardar Sikander Hyat Khan – served as Prime Minister of United Punjab in pre-partitioned India.

▪   General Ahsan Hayat

Junejo Family

The members of Junejo family (Urdu: خاندان جونیجو) in politics:

▪   Raees-Ul-Muhajireen Barrister Jan Muhammad Junejo – Leader of the Khilafat Tehreek.

▪   Khan Bahadur Mohammad Hayat Junejo

▪   Ghulam Rasool Junejo – Former District Council Chairman, Tharparker

▪   Mohammad Khan Junejo Former Prime Minister of Pakistan

▪   Jam Sadiq Ali – Former Chief Minister Sindh

▪   Sarfaraz Ali Junejo- Taluka Nazim Sindhri, Mirpurkhas

▪   Chakar Ali Khan Junejo – Former Ambassador MPA

▪   Shahnawaz Khan Junejo – Former Federal Minister, MNA and Senator

▪   Roshan Junejo – MNA

Gardezi Family

The members of Gardezi family in politics:

▪   Syed Ahsan Mehdi Gardezi

▪   Syed Qaiser Raza Gardezi (MNA, Federal Minister)

▪   Syed Zohair Akbar Gardezi (senator)

▪   Syed Qais Raza gardezi (MNA Multan)

▪   Syed Imam Shah Gardezi,was Mausheer-i-Fauj,Bahawalpur State Forces.

▪   Syed Muhammed Nawaz Shah Gardezi I,was Chief Minister,Bahawalpur State in 1880.

▪   Syed Muraad Shah Gardezi, Native Agent and Chief Judge Bahawalpur State

▪   Syed Hassan Baksh Gardezi (Khan Bhaddur)

▪   Syed Ghulam Ali Shah Gardezi,was District Magistrate (died 1931).

▪   Syed Muhammed Nawaz Gardezi II,was elected MPA in 1963.

▪   Syed Ali Hussain Gardezi, elected MPA and Minister in Punjab Cabinet

▪   Sayyid Abbas Hussain Gardezi, elected MNA in 1971 and 1973

▪   Dr. Sayyid Ali Raza Gardezi, Principal Allama Iqbal Medical College, Minister (Health & Population)

▪   Syed Muhammad Kaswar Gardezi Secretary General National Awami Party

▪   Sayyid Haider Abbas Gardezi (PPP, member exec.comm.)

▪   Sayyid Hussain Jahania Gardezi (MPA)

▪   Sayyid Ahmed Nawaz Gardezi (MNA, Multan) brother Makhdum Raju Shah Gardezi

▪   syed Ahmad Nawaz Gardezi (MNA, Bahawalpur)

▪   Syed Tasneem Nawaz Gardezi (MNA, Bahawalpur)

▪   Syed Salman Ahmed Gardezi (MPA, Bahawalpur)

▪   Syed Irfan Ahmed Gardezi

▪   Syeda Bushra Nawaz Gardezi (MPA, Bahawalpur)

▪   Syed Sabir Hussain Gardezi

Bahram Khan Family

Bahram Khan Family‘s family (Urdu: خاندان بهرام خان) in politics:

▪   Khan Abdul Bahram Khan‎, the founder of the family

▪   Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, son of Khan Abdul Bahram Khan‎

▪   Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, son of Khan Abdul Bahram Khan‎

▪   Khan Abdul Ghani Khan, son of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

▪   Khan Abdul Wali Khan, son of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

▪   Nasim Wali Khan, wife of Khan Abdul Wali Khan

▪   Asfandyar Wali Khan, son of Khan Abdul Wali Khan

▪   Sangeen Wali Khan, son of Khan Abdul Wali Khan and Nasim Wali Khan

Badshah Khan’s Family

The members of Badshah Khan’s family (Urdu: خاندان بادشاه خان) in politics:

▪   Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan (Former member of Indian National Congress,served as the Interim Mister for Industries, Freedom fighter and an Active Member of Pakistan Muslim League) (cousin of Haroon Khan Badshah)

▪   Haroon Khan Badshah (Member of Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, ex-provincial Minister for AgricultureKhyber-Pakhtunkhwa)

▪   Muhammad Hanif Khan (Federal Minister for Information and Broadcasting 4-12-1988 to 28-1-1990,Speaker of the National Assembly 18-06-1973 to 08-04-1977)(Brother of Haroon Khan Badshah)

▪   Shahzada Muhammad Asif Khan (Member of Pakistan Peoples Party, First President of Pakistan Peoples Party ofMansehra) (Son of Haroon Khan Badshah)

▪   Shahzada Muhammad Gushtasip Khan (Former Provincial Minister of Education, Agriculture and Health, Member of Pakistan’s Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Assembly, Leader of the Opposition in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Assembly and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa ex-Home Minister and Interior Minister)(Son of Haroon Khan Badshah)

Hidayatullah Family

The members of Hidayatullah family of Sindh in politics:

▪   Ghulam Hussain Hidayat Ullah (First Muslim Chief Minister Sindh 24 April 1937 – 23 March 1938, 14 October 1942 – 14 August 1947, First Muslim Governor of Sind, 14 August 1947 – 4 October 1948)

▪   Lady Daulat Haroon Hidayatullah (Founder of All Pakistan Women’s Association(APWA), philanthropist and Author)

▪   Anwar Hidayatullah (Former Pakistani Ambassador to Brazil, Tunisia and Morocco. Former Consul General of Monoco)

▪   Ghazanfar Hidayatullah (Former Chief Secretary, PML-Q, Former member PPP)

▪   Charmaine Hidayatullah (Current Consul General to Monoco & Banker)

▪   Micki Hidayatallah (C.E.O Allis-Chalmers, Houston, TX)

Kasuri Family

▪   Sahibzada Ahmad Raza Khan Kasuri (Member of National Assembly) *Kasur1970 PPP

▪   Sahibzada Khizer Hayat Khan Kasuri(Member of National Assembly) *Kasur1988 Independent


Bhatti Family

▪   Rai Bashir Ahmad Khan Bhatti(late) (Member of legislative Assembly, Member of National Assembly) *Nankana

▪   Rai Rashid Ahmnad Khan Bhatti (Late) (Member of Provincinal Assembly, and National Assembly)*Nankana

▪   Rai Shahjhan Ahmad Khan Bhatti (Member of Provincinal Assembly) *Nankana

▪   Rai Sarwar Khan Bhatti (Chairman Market Committee Nankana)

▪   Rai Akram Bhatti (Former President District Bar Nankana)

Rao Family

▪   Rao Abdul Qavi Khan(Late)(Member of National Assembly)

▪   Rao Jahanzaib Qavi Khan(Son of Rao Abdul Qavi Khan)(MPA)

▪   Rao Muhammad Aslam Khan,Advocate(Late)(President PML(N),Sahiwal 1992to2004)(Member of National & Provincial Council PML(N))

▪   Rao Jehanzeb Wajid Ali Khan (son of Rao M.Aslam Khan Advocate(Late)PML(N),Sahiwal ) (Representative to Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif)(Member National & Provincial Council PML(N))

▪   Rao Muhammad Afzal Rehmani(Late)(Member of National Assembly)

▪   Rao Ajmal Khan and Rao Muhammad Tajamal Khan(Member of National Assembly)(Son of Rao Afzal)

▪   Rao Sikandar Iqbal(Ex)(Defense minister of Pakistan)

▪   Rao Atif Sikandar(Naib District Nazim Okara)(Son of Rao Sikandar)

▪   Rao Muhammad Qaiser Ali Khan(Member of National Assembly)

▪   Rao Muhammad Safdar Ali Khan(Brother of Rao Qaiser)(MPA)

▪   Rao Muhammad Jalal Ali khan(Brother of Rao Qaiser) & (Son in law of Rao Abdul Qavi Khan) (Ex)(Chairman of market committee Depalpur)

▪   Rao Muhammad Tahir Ali Khan(Son of Rao Qaiser)(Ex)(Naib nazim Tehsil Depalpur district Okara)

▪   Rao Muhammad Mohsin Ali Khan (Member of National Assembly)Son in Law of Rao Qaiser

▪   Rao Jamil Akhtar( Okara Tehsil Nazim)(Cousin of Rao Qaiser)

▪   Rao Khalid Khan(Cousin of Rao Qaiser)(MPA)

▪   Rao Fayyaz Aslam Khan(Nephew of Rao Afzal) (MPA)

▪   Rao Mohammad Hashim Khan,(Member of National Assembly,Ex-Chairman Public Accounts Committee)

▪   Rao Naseem Hashim Khan(District Nazim Pakpattan)

▪   Rao Muhammad Jameel Hashim Khan(Member of National Assembly) son of Rao Hashim

▪   Rao Shafaat Ali Chohan (Late)(Ex-MNA)(Migrated from Bharatpur, India)

Zia-ul-Haq Family

The members of Zia-ul-Haq’s family (Urdu: خاندان ضياءالحق) in politics:

▪   Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (President of Pakistan, 1978–1988)

▪   Mohammad Ejaz-ul-Haq (son of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq; cabinet minister)

Noon family

Noon Family (Urdu: خاندان نون) is major political family of Pakistan.

Members of Noon family:

▪   Khalid Malik Tiwana.ex.punjab minister from Faisalabad.

▪   Malik Aamir Ali Noon.Local political leader.

▪   Malik Adnan Hayat Noon.ex.MNA.

▪   Malik Akbar Hayat Noon

▪   Malik Amjad Ali Noon .Ex.ambassidar,Ex.chairman,The best honest political leader in Sargodha.

▪   Malik Anwar Ali Noon.ppp leader in Sargodha .

▪   Malik Asad Ali Noon. Banker.

▪   Malik Atta Noon

▪   Malik Azhar Hayat Noon

▪   Malik Fateh Muhammad Noon

▪   Malik Feroz Khan Noon Ex.Prime minister of Pakistan.

▪   Malik Hakim Khan Noon

▪   Malik Hamid Ali Noon

▪   Malik Manzor Hayat Noon

▪   Malik Mazhar Hayat Noon

▪   Malik Munawer Ali Noon

▪   Malik Nur Hayat Noon,

▪   Malik Sardar Khan Noon

▪   Malik Sultan Ali Khan Noon

▪   Malik Zahoor Hayat Noon

Leghari Family

The members of Leghari family (Urdu: خاندان لغاری), in politics:

▪   Nawab Sir Sardar Muhammad Jamal Khan Leghari (MLA and Minister)

▪   Nawab Sardar Muhammad Khan Leghari (MLA, MPA and Minister)

▪   Nawab Ata Muhammad Khan Leghari ICS (MPA)

▪   Nawab Mahmood Khan Leghari (MPA, Chairman District Board)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Afzal Khan Leghari (Minister Revenue Bhawalpur state, Member Board of Revenue)

▪   Begum Afifa Mamdot (MNA, MPA, Minister)

▪   Sardar Farooq Ahmaed Khan Leghari(ex President of Pakistan)*

▪   Sardar Muhammad Jaffer Khan Leghari (MNA, MPA, Chairman District Council Rajanpur)

▪   Sardar Haroon Arif Khan Leghari ( Ex Councellor Nowshera District ) Independent candidate MPA, Pirpai..the only Leghari in Pukhtunkhwa…grandson of Sardar Muhammad Afzal Khan Leghari of Rahimabad.

▪   Sardar Muhammad Omer Khan Leghari (MPA)

▪   Sardar Maqsood Ahmad Khan Leghari (MNA, MPA, Federal Minister, Provincial Minister, Chairman District Council DG Khan, Zila Nazim DG Khan)

▪   Sardar Mansoor Ahmad Khan Leghari (MPA, MNA, Senator, Chairman District Council DG Khan)

▪   Col. (Retd.)Sardar Rafiq Ahmad Khan Leghari (MPA “Punjab”)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Jamal Khan Leghari (Senator, Zila Nazim DG Khan)

▪   Awais Leghari (MPA, MNA, Federal Minister)

▪   Mina Ehsan Leghari (Mrs. Muhammad Jaffer Khan Leghari) (MNA)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Yusuf Khan Leghari (MPA)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Khan Leghari (MPA “Punjab”)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Mohsin Khan Leghari (MPA “Punjab”)

▪   Sardar Nadir Akmal Khan Leghari (MPA “Sindh” and Miniter)

▪   Sardar Rafiq Haider Khan Leghari (MPA “Punjab”, Minister, Chairman District Council RY Khan, Zila Nazim RY Khan)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Azhar Khan Leghari (MPA “Punjab”)

▪   Sardar Muhammad Arshad Khan Leghari (MNA)

▪   Dr. Javaid Leghari (Senator)

▪   Dr.Abdul Rauf leghari(Haematologist)

Qazi Family

The members of Qazi family (Urdu: خاندان قاضی), of Sindh in politics:

▪   Qazi Abdul Qayyum, the first Muslim President of the Hyderabad Municipality

▪   Qazi Muhammad Akbar, a long serving Sindh Provincial Minister, Ambassador of Pakistan, and son of Qazi Abdul Qayyum

▪   Qazi Abdul Majeed Abid (Qazi Abid), a four time Federal Minister, Sindh Provincial Minister, and son of Qazi Abdul Qayyum

▪   Qazi Muhammad Azam, a three time Member of Parliament (West Pakistan National Assembly) (in 1965,1971 and 1977) and son of Qazi Abdul Qayyum

▪   Hakeem Muhammad Ahsan, first Mayor of Karachi, Pakistan following independence of Pakistan in 1947, Ambassador of Pakistan to numerous countries, Senior Sindh Provincial Minister, and nephew of Qazi Abdul Qayyum

▪   Fahmida Mirza, current Speaker of the National Assembly, former Acting President of Pakistan, three time Member of the National Assembly, and daughter of Qazi Abid

▪   Qazi Asad Abid, a former Member of the National Assembly and son of Qazi Abid

▪   Ameena Ashraf, a former Member of the National Assembly and the Sindh Provincial Assembly and daughter of Qazi Muhammad Akbar

▪   Zulfiqar Mirza, current Sindh Provincial Home Minister, former Member of the National Assembly, and nephew of Qazi Abid, Qazi Azam, and Qazi Akbar.

▪   Pir Mazhar Ul Haq, current Senior Minister and Education Minister in the Sindh Provincial Cabinet, a three time SindhProvincial Minister, and grandson of Qazi Muhammad Akbar

▪   Marvi Mazhar, a former Member of the Provincial Assembly in Sindh and daughter of Pir Mazhar Ul Haq

Qazis of Chiniot:

Qazi Ghulam Shabir(mayor of Chiniot in British era always got elected unopposed) Qazi Hassan Safdar (Nazim Chiniot) Hassan Ali(Four time MPA Chiniot) Nawab Qazi Ghulam Murtaza (MLA – Congress) Other members of this family have been members of the Indian National Congress and the Legislative assembly and the names would be put up soon. The Qazi family of Chiniot is without a doubt a family counted among one of the very few Nawab families of Punjab. This family is also a relative of the Goraya family, which also is counted as one of the Nawab families of Punjab though their glorified period has become history but Mr.Shaukat Nawaz Goraya is a person who is toeing the ship of Goraya family and hopefully he is going to enter the field of politics.

Zardari family

The members of Zardari family (Urdu: خاندان زرداری), in politics:

▪   Hakim Ali Zardari, the patriarch of Zardari family

▪   Asif Ali Zardari, son of Hakim Ali Zardari and husband of Benazir BhuttoPresident of Pakistan

▪   Azra Peechoho, daughter of Hakim Ali Zardari

▪   Faryal Talpur, daughter of Hakim Ali Zardari, Former Nazima Nawabshah District, MNA

▪   Bilawal Zardari, son of Asif Ali Zardari and Benazir Bhutto, Chairman Pakistan People’s Party

Tiwana Family

( Touts of Colonial British)

Continuing the old landlord legacy of Tiwana’s. The Tiwana politicians after partition of 1947:

▪   Malik Fateh Khan Tiwana Motiawala, Strongest/Richest Jagirdar of the areas of, Mitha Tiwana, Nurpur Tiwana, Bannu, Tank, Marwat(Ihsanpur), Sargodha, Khushab, Dera Ismail Khan. d.(1848)

▪   Nawab Khan Bahadur Lieutenant Hafiz Malik Muhammad Sher Khan Tiwana Rais of Mitha Tiwana was the Sardar/Leader of the tribe who Despite opposing the British, had titles of Honorary Magistrate, Honorary Lieutenant, Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel, Honorary Major-General, Speaker National Assembly (First Muslims student/pioneer to Recite Holy Quran in the Assembly of Aitchison Chief’s College, Lahore)

▪   Nawab Allah Buksh Tiwana Senator

▪   Malik Khuda Baksh Tiwana Former Minister Punjab, Chairman Zila Council Sargodha & Khushab

▪   Raheela Tiwana Ex-Deputy Speaker Sindh Assembly

▪   Malik Ghulam Muhammad Tiwana Zila Nazim Khushab, Chairman Zila Council Khushab, Ex-MNA

▪   Malik Anwer Tiwana Ex-MNA

▪   Malik Ehsan Ullah Tiwana Ex Zila Nazim Khushab, Chairman Zila Council Khushab

▪   Khuda Baksh Waghal Tiwana Ex-Chairman Zila Council Sargodha

Chaudhry’s of Chillianwala

▪   Chaudhry Iqbal (Muslim league MNA from 1960 to 1990)

▪   Chaudhry Ashraf (PPP senator and leader)

▪   Chaudhry Zaka ashraf (former advisor and Central leader PPP)

▪   Chaudhry jafar Iqbal (former minister, former deputy speaker N A and sectary general PML N)

▪   Chaudhry Nasir Iqbal (former MNA)

▪   Begum Ishrat Ashraf (MNA and former advisor to PM)

▪   Zaib jaffar (MPA)

▪   Maiza Hameed (MPA)

Qazis of Chiniot

▪   Qazi Ghulam Shabir(mayor of Chiniot in British era always got elected unopposed)

▪   Qazi Hassan Safdar (Nazim Chiniot)

▪   Hassan Ali(Four time MPA Chiniot)

▪   Nawab Qazi Ghulam Murtaza (MLA – Congress)

Other members of this family have been members of the Indian National Congress and the Legislative assembly and the names would be put up soon. The Qazi family of Chiniot is without a doubt a family counted among one of the very few Nawab families of Punjab. This family is also a relative of the Goraya family, which also is counted as one of the Nawab families of Punjab though their glorified period has become history but Mr.Shaukat Nawaz Goraya is a person who is toeing the ship of Goraya family and hopefully he is going to enter the field of politics.


Kakay Zai Kalarh

▪   Malik Bagh Ali.

▪   Malik Muhammad Bakhsh.

▪   Malik Fida Muhammad.

▪   Malik Arshad Nawaz.

Rana Family

▪   Rana Mohammad Phool Khan:Undefeated Member of Punjab and national assembly, Chief Minister Punjab (5 months)

▪   Rana Mohammad Iqbal Khan:Undefeated MPA.Minister from punjab.Speaker Punjab Assembly

▪   Rana Mohammad Hayat Khan:MNA,District Nazim Kasur,TMO Chairman

▪   Rana Mohammad Husnain Khan:MNA(2 years)

▪   Rana Mohammad Aslam Khan:DIG Kasur

▪   Rana Mohammad Imtiaz Khan:MNA and District Nazim Kasur

▪   Rana Mohammad Sarfraz Khan:MPA

▪   Rana Niaz Irfan: Chairman BISE Islamabad

Awan Family

▪   Sarfaraz Khan:Former Mla

Muhummad Raza Khan:Former Senator Of Pakistan 9 year’s elected senator and Then Advisor to chief Minister Nwfp Aftab Ahmed khan Sherpao Muhumamad Sikandar raza khan Young political Figure Of mansehra

Kalabagh Family (Mianwali):

Nawab of Kalabagh Malik Amir Muhammad Khan Ex Governer West Pakistan. Nawabzada Muzaffar Khan. Nawabzada Asad Khan. Nawabzada Malik Amad Khan MNA.

Sardaran Chakwal Talagang:

Sardar Faiz Khan Tamman. Sardar Mansur Hayat Tamman.Air Martial Noor Khan Awan.

Chakwal Maliks:

General Retd Majeed Malik (Ex Minister)


Maliks Of Khushab (Soon Valley):

Malik Karam Bakhsh Awan. Malik Bashir Awan. Malik Shakir Bashir Awan (MNA). Malik Umer Aslam Awan (Ex MNA). Malik Naeem Khan Awan (Ex Federal minister). Sumera Malik (MNA).

Maliks of Attock: Malik Aslam Khan (Ex MNA). Malik Amin Aslam Khan (Ex MNA). Malik Hakmeen Khan (senetor). Shahan Malik (MPA).

Khattar Awan Family (Attock): Sardar Sikander Hayat Khan. Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan. Ghulam Sarwar Khan (Ex Minister). Sadiq Khan. Major Tahir Sadiq.

Golra Awan Family Islamabad: Anjum Aqeel Khan Awan(MNA)

Qazi Family Of Haripur Hazara: Qazi Muhammad Asad Khan Golra Sikanderpur (Provincial Minister)

Captain Rtd Safdar Awan of Khawari Mansehra (MNA)Rawalpindi

Malik Shakeel Awan (MNA)Kilyam Awan Rawalpindi

Sahibzada Muhammad Mehboob Sultan (MNA)Jhang

Malik Muhammad Jamil Awan (MNA)Gujrat

Malik Mukhtar Awan (Ex MNA Minister PPP Multan)

Malik Tayyub khan Awan (EX MPA Lodhran)

Malik Mushtaq Awan (Ex MNA Minister Sheikhupura)

Zaheer ud din Babar Awan (law Minister Senetor)

Dr Firdous Ashiq Awan (Minister MNA) Sialkot

Colonel Rtd Shabir Awan (MPA) Rawalpindi

Shafiq Khan (MPA) Taxila

Malik Zahoor Anwar (MPA) Tallagang

Ghulam Habib Awan (MPA) Lahore


See also

▪   Politics of Pakistan


Gill Family of Pakistan Chaudhari Imtiaz Ahmad Gill MNA

Chaudhari Shafi Gill Chairman District council Faisalabad

Zeb Imtiaz Gill MPA

External links

▪   Article on Political Families of Pakistan by the International Museum of Women.

Latif, Aamir Family Rules in Pakistani Politics IslamOnline.net (Retrieved 24-07-2008


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

slum in KarachiPakistan with an open sewer running along the lane.

Poverty in Pakistan is difficult to quantify. In 2006, the methodology used by the Pakistani government to estimate those living in poverty was challenged by the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme(UNDP). At that time, the government estimate was that 23.9 per cent of the population lived below the poverty line but the independent organisations assessed the figure in the range of 25.7 – 28.3 per cent.[1] Those independent bodies supported estimates of a considerable fall in the statistic by the 2007-08 fiscal year, when it was estimated that 17.2% of the total population lived below the poverty line.[2] The declining trend in poverty as seen in the country during the 1970s and 1980s was reversed in the 1990s by poor federal policies and rampant corruption.[3] This phenomenon has been referred to as the “poverty bomb”.[4] In 2001, the government was assisted by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in preparing the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper that suggests guidelines to reduce poverty in the country.[5]

Pakistan fares better than India and Bangladesh on most poverty markers such as the UN MPI index and its poverty rate is below those nations.[6]

As of 2009, Pakistan’s Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.572, higher than that of nearby Bangladesh’s 0.543, which was formerly a part of the country itself. Pakistan’s HDI still stands lower than that of neighbouring India’s at 0.612.[7]

According to the HDI, 60.3% of Pakistan’s population lives on under $2 a day, compared to 79% in nearby India and 81.3% in nearby Bangladesh,[8] and some 28.6% live under $1 a day, compared to 24.9% in India and 49.6% in Bangladesh[9]

Wealth distribution in Pakistan is highly uneven, with the top 10% of the population earning 27.6% and the bottom 10% earning only 4.1% of the income[10] According to the United Nations Human Development Report, Pakistan’s human development indicators, especially those for women, fall significantly below those of countries with comparable levels of per-capita income. Pakistan also has a higher infant mortality rate (88 per 1000) than the South Asian average (83 per 1000).[11]



Spatial distribution of poverty

At the time of partition and independence in 1947, Pakistan inherited the most backward parts of South Asia with only one university, one Textile Mill and one Jute Factory. The country has made tremendous progress and its per Capita GNP remains the highest in South Asia. During the last decade poverty elimination programs helped many of the poor to participate and rise up. However the Global financial crisis and other factors like the occupation of Afghanistan have impacted Pakistani growth. Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural areas and lower in the cities. Out of the total 40 million living below the poverty line, 30 million live in rural areas. Poverty rose sharply in the rural areas in the 1990s [12] and the gap in income between urban and rural areas of the country became more significant. This trend has been attributed to a disproportionate impact of economic events in the rural and urban areas. Punjab also has significant gradients in poverty among the different regions of the province.[12]

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan was one of the most backward regions of the South Asia. Despite this, tremendous progress has been made in many areas. The NWFP now boasts several universities including the Ghulam Ishaq Khan University of Science and Technology.Peshawar a sleep cantonment during British towns is a modern cosmopolitan city. Much more can be done to invest in the social and economic structures. NWFP remains steeped in tribal culture, though the biggest Pahan city is Soviet invasion of neighboring Afghanistan is intact and according to Western reports supported the Taliban regime.[citation needed] These and other activities have led to a breakdown of law and order in many parts of the region.[13]

Poverty and gender

The gender discriminatory practices in Pakistani society also shape the distribution of poverty in the country. Traditional gender roles in Pakistan define the woman’s place as in the home and not in the workplace, and define the man as the breadwinner. Consequently, the society invests far less in women than men.[14] Women in Pakistan suffer from poverty of opportunities throughout their lives. Female literacy in Pakistan is 43.6% compared to Male literacy at 68.2%, as of 2008.[15] In legislative bodies, women constituted less than 3% of the legislature elected on general seats before 2002. The 1973 Constitution allowed reserved seats for women in both houses of parliament for a period of 20 years, thus ensuring that women would be represented in parliament regardless of whether or not they are elected on general seats. This provision lapsed in 1993, so parliaments elected subsequently did not have reserved seats for women. Reserved seats for women have been restored after the election of 2002 .[16] Female labour rates in Pakistan are exceptionally low.

Economic and social vulnerability

Un-Employment Rates

Administrative Unit1998 Census1981 CensusBoth SexesMaleFemalePakistan19.6820.195.053.1Rural19.9820.405.502.3Urban19.1319.774.495.2Khyber Pakhtunkhwa26.8327.512.582.2Rural28.1628.644.002.0Urban21.0022.340.743.7Punjab19.1019.605.503.2Rural18.6019.006.002.5Urban20.1020.74.705.0Sindh14.4314.864.693.3Rural11.9512.263.701.6Urban16.7517.315.405.8Balochistan33.4834.148.673.1Rural35.2635.929.813.0Urban27.6728.335.354.0Islamabad15.7016.801.7010.7Rural28.7029.408.2013.5Urban10.1011.000.809.0Unemployment Rate: It is the percentage of persons unemployed (those looking for work and temporarily laid off) to the total economically active population (10 years and above). Source: [3]

Socio-Economic Status of Pakistanis, source:[17]

“Vulnerability” in this case stands for the underlying susceptibility of economically deprived people to fall into poverty as a result of exogenous random shocks. Vulnerable households are generally found to have low expenditure levels. Households are considered vulnerable if they do not have the means to smooth out their expenses in response to changes in income. In general, vulnerability is likely to be high in households clustered around the poverty line. Since coping strategies for vulnerable households depend primarily on their sources of income, exogenous shocks can increase reliance on non-agricultural wages. Such diversification has not occurred in many parts of Pakistan, leading to an increased dependence on credit.[18]

While economic vulnerability is a key factor in the rise of poverty in Pakistan, vulnerability also arises from social powerlessness, political disenfranchisement, and ill-functioning and distortionary institutions, and these also are important causes of the persistence of vulnerability among the poor.[19]

Other causes of vulnerability in Pakistan are the everyday harassment by corrupt government officials, as well as their underperformance, exclusion and denial of basic rights to many in Pakistan. Also, lack of adequate health care by the state lead the poor to seek private sources, which are expensive, but still preferable to the possibility of medical malpractice and being given expired medicines in state run medical facilities. Also, the failure by the state to provide adequate law and order in many parts of the country is a factor in the rise of vulnerability of the poor.[19]

Environmental issues

Environmental problems in Pakistan, such as erosion, use of agro-chemicals, deforestation etc. contribute to rising poverty in Pakistan. Increasing pollution contributes to increasing risk of toxicity, and poor industrial standards in the country contribute to rising pollution.[20][21]

Lack of adequate governanceBy the end of the 1990s, the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s social and economic resources for development emerged as Pakistan’s foremost developmental problem. Corruption and political instabilities such as the insurgency in Balochistan and decade long armed conflict with the Taliban in Waziristan region resulted in reduction of business confidence, deterioration of economic growth, reduced public expenditure, poor delivery of public services, and undermining of the rule of law.[22] The perceived security threat on the border with India has dominated Pakistan’s culture and has led to the domination of military in politics, excessive spending on defense at the expense of social sectors, and the erosion of law and order.Pakistan has been run by military dictatorships for large periods of time, alternating with limited democracy.[23][24] These rapid changes in governments led to rapid policy changes and reversals and the reduction of transparency and accountability in government. The onset of military regimes have contributed to non-transparency in resource allocation. In particular, the neglect by the Pakistani state of the Balochistan andKhyber Pakhtunkhwa has rendered the region poverty-stricken [4]. Those who do not constitute the political elite are unable to make political leaders and the Government responsive to their needs or accountable to promises. Development priorities are determined not by potential beneficiaries but by the bureaucracy and a political elite which may or may not be in touch with the needs of the citizens. Political instability and macroeconomic imbalances have been reflected in poor creditworthiness ratings, even compared to other countries of similar income levels, with resulting capital flight and lower foreign direct investment inflows. The current government of Pakistan has professed commitments to reforms in this area.[25]In addition, Pakistan’s major cities and urban centres are home to an estimated 1.2 million street children. This includes beggars and scavengers who are often very young. The law and order problem worsens their condition as boys and girls are fair game to others who would force them into stealing, scavenging and smuggling to survive. A large proportion consumes readily available solvents to starve off hunger, loneliness and fear. Children are vulnerable to contracting STDs such as HIV/AIDS, as well as other diseases.[26]


Pakistan is home to a large feudal landholding system where landholding families hold thousands of acres and do little work on the agriculture themselves. They enlist the services of their serfs to perform the labor of the land.[27] 51% of poor tenants owe money to the landlords.[28] The landlords’ position of power allows them to exploit the only resource the poor can possibly provide: their own labor.

Poverty and Militancy

Poverty and the lack of a modern curriculum have proved destabilizing factors for Pakistani society that have been exploited by militant organizations banned by the government to run schools and produce militant literature. Though many madrassas are benign, there are those that subscribe to the radicalist sect of Wahabi Islam,.[29][30]

As a result, militant Islamic political parties have become more powerful in Pakistan and have considerable sympathy among the poor. This phenomenon is more pronounced in the North Western Frontier Province.[31]

Inequality and natural disasters

  1. The recent 2010 Pakistan floods have accentuated differences between the wealthy and poor in Pakistan. Abdullah Hussain Haroon, Pakistan’s diplomat to the United Nations, has alleged that wealthy feudal warlords and landowners in Pakistan have been diverting funds and resources away from the poor and into their own private relief efforts.[32] Haroon also alluded to was evidence that landowners had allowed embankments to burst, leading to water flowing away from their land.[33] There are also allegations that local authorities colluded with the warlords to divert funds.[34] The floods have accentuated the sharp divisions in Pakistan between the wealthy and the poor. The wealthy, with better access to transportation and other facilities, have suffered far less than the poor of Pakistan.[35]

See also


  1. Jump up^ “World bank, UNDP question poverty estimates in Pakistan”. OneWorld.net (South Asia). Retrieved 2008-05-04.
  2. Jump up^ “UNDP Reports Pakistan Poverty Declined to 17%, Under Musharraf”. Pakistan Daily. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  3. Jump up^ “Poverty in Pakistan: Issues, Causes, and Institutional Responses”Asian Development Bank (accessed: 2008-05-04)
  4. Jump up^ Pakistan: Now the Poverty Bomb goes off, M, Ziauddin,Third World Network
  5. Jump up^ “Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper” (accessed: 2008-05-04)
  6. Jump up^ Nelson, Dean (2011-11-03). “Indian poverty levels higher than Pakistan’s, says UN report”The Daily Telegraph (London).
  7. Jump up^ United Nations Development ProgrammeStatistics of the Human Development ReportHuman Development Reports
  8. Jump up^ “Human Development Report 2009 – Population living below $2 a day (%)”. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
  9. Jump up^ “Human Development Report 2009 – Population living below $1.25 a day (%)”. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
  10. Jump up^ nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Pakistan-POVERTY-AND-WEALTH.html
  11. Jump up^ UN Human Development ReportChapter 2
  12. Jump up to:a b ADB report pg 11
  13. Jump up^ Pakistan is active in the Fight Against Fundamentalismbuzzle.com
  14. Jump up^ ADB report pg 13
  15. Jump up^ [1][dead link]
  16. Jump up^ Kabeer, Naila (1994). Reversed Realities. Verso, London.
  17. Jump up^ http://archives.dawn.com/archives/29076
  18. Jump up^ ADB report pg 15
  19. Jump up to:a b ADB report pg 16
  20. Jump up^ ADB report pg 29
  21. Jump up^ Poverty in the context of Pakistan iucn.org
  22. Jump up^ ADB report pg 33
  23. Jump up^ ADB Report pg 34
  24. Jump up^ Why democracy didn’t take roots in Pakistan? Kashmir Herald
  25. Jump up^ ADB report pg 34
  26. Jump up^ Surviving on the Streets Pakistan, Poverty Unveiled.World Vision
  27. Jump up^ PAKISTAN: Feudalism: root cause of Pakistan’s malaise – News Weekly
  28. Jump up^ [2][dead link]
  29. Jump up^ Archive of The Asian Age: Rise of fundamentalism in Pakistan
  30. Jump up^ C. Lys (2006). “Demonizing the “Other:” Fundamentalist Pakistani Madrasahs and the Construction of Religious Violence”. Marburg Journal of Religion( Link) 11 (1).
  31. Jump up^ Pakistan is Losing the Fight Against Fundamentalism
  32. Jump up^ Pakistan’s rich ‘diverted floods to save their land’
  33. Jump up^ Pakistan landlords ‘diverted flood water’BBC News
  35. Jump up^ Issam Ahmed (2010-08-12). “Pakistan floods strand the poor while rich go to higher ground”. CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 2011-07-26.

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