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Archive for category Pakistan Naval Strategic Strike Force


A C-602 being fired in China from a land-based launch vehicle.




Is Pakistan now producing Chinese anti-ship missiles under license?

10 April 2016

By Bilal Khan

The Pakistan Navy has recently test-fired a shore-based anti-ship missile (AShM) named “Zarb.” Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) did not offer any specific information, such as range, speed, or payload weight.

Pakistan had issued a navigational warning notice several days in advance of the test. The maximum range allotted for the test was set at 300km, which was compliant with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), an international legal framework that regulates commercial missile and drone sales on the global arms market.

The Zarb was inducted to enhance Pakistan’s area denial capabilities by equipping its coastal areas with AShM-tipped launch batteries, which in turn could fire AShMs at intruding surface ships up to a maximum range of 300km.

Upon concluding the test, the Navy announced that it had formally inducted the Zarb AShM. With no prior tests registered over the Arabian Sea, and the fact that it is MTCR-compliant, it is likely that the Zarb is an off-the-shelf purchase.

That said, the specific characteristics of the Zarb AShM are unknown. Given the fact that it was tested from a coastal battery, it is plausible to suggest that the Zarb is basically the C-602.

Produced by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC), the C-602 is a heavy AShM capable of delivering a 300kg warhead. A heavier variant (with a 480kg warhead) is also available in the form of the CM-602G.

The idea of Pakistan acquiring the C-602 is not a surprise, but the use of a local name (i.e. Zarb) suggests that the missile is being produced domestically.

Given the added cost of such a technology transfer (i.e. to produce the missile domestically), would it not make more sense for Pakistan to acquire the C-802 instead? At this time, the C-602 can only be used from Pakistan’s coasts, there are no surface warships or aircraft capable of carrying such a heavy munition.

On the other hand, the C-802 is in use with the Pakistan Navy’s Zulfiqar-class (F-22P) frigates, Azmat-class fast attack crafts (FAC), and even the Pakistan Air Force’s (PAF) JF-17s. Moreover, there is nothing to stop the C-802 from being launched from land either.

The comparatively widespread adoption of the C-802 within the Pakistan Armed Forces makes it a more suitable candidate for local production than the C-602. In any case, this is speculation on our part, it still has not been confirmed whether the Zarb is being locally produced (under license or otherwise).


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Pakistan test fires nuclear-capable ballistic missile by Tim Craig





Pakistan test fires nuclear-capable ballistic missile(0:45)

Pakistan conducted a successful test launch of a surface-to-surface ballistic missile on Monday, capable of carrying nuclear and conventional warheads. (Reuters)




In recent years, India has moved toward the creation of a missile defense system and is upgrading its air force and submarine fleet. In 2012, India test-launched its first intercontinental ballistic missile, which it said has a range of more than 3,100 miles.

India’s growing defense budget is largely a result of its uneasy relationship with China. But Pakistan and India have fought three major wars since 1947. Analysts estimate that Pakistan and India possess about 100 nuclear warheads each, and nonproliferation experts say the Indian subcontinent remains a nuclear flash point.

Several Pakistani military analysts said the Shaheen-III has a range greater than that of any other Pakistani missile. The maximum range of the earlier versions of the Shaheen missile was about 1,500 miles, which meant it could not reach parts of India’s eastern frontier.

“Now, India doesn’t have its safe havens anymore,” said Shahid Latif, a retired commander of Pakistan’s air force. “It’s all a reaction to India, which has now gone even for tests of extra-regional missiles. . . . It sends a loud message: If you hurt us, we are going to hurt you back.”

Some analysts caution that the true range of the Shaheen-III could be less than what Pakistani military leaders claim. But Monday’s test could aggravate unease in parts of the Middle East, including Israel. Historically, there also has been some tension between Pakistan, which is overwhelmingly Sunni, and Shiite-dominated Iran.

Mansoor Ahmed, a strategic studies and nuclear expert at Quaid-i-Azam University in Islamabad, said, however, that Pakistan’s nuclear ambitions are focused solely on India.











India has a no-first-use policy on nuclear weapons. But Pakistani leaders have repeatedly declined to adopt a similar stance, saying they might be forced to resort to nuclear weapons should India invade Pakistan with conventional forces. The Indian army is more than twice the size of Pakistan’s and has a vast advantage in weaponry such as tanks, aircraft and artillery pieces.

Ahmed said Pakistan’s military is not interested in a “tit-for-tat” arms race with India. Instead, he said, Pakistan hopes to improve “existing capabilities,” including new delivery systems for evading an Indian missile defense shield.

Ahmed said he suspects that Pakistani scientists and engineers are working to equip the Shaheen-III with multiple warheads, which would make the missiles harder to defend against. Pakistan is also seeking to advance its cruise missile technology. Ahmed said the ­Shaheen-III can be fired from mobile launchers, making the missiles easier to conceal and move around in the event of a nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan.

Jeffrey Lewis, a nuclear and nonproliferation scholar at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, said Pakistan has been working to make smaller, lighter nuclear warheads. A smaller warhead makes it far more likely that the Shaheen-III can really deliver a nuclear payload up to 1,700 miles.

“You would want to model it, but at first approximation, I would be surprised to learn [the range] would be widely off,” Lewis said.

The timing of Monday’s missile test caught some analysts by surprise. It occurred less than a week after India’s foreign secretary, Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, ­visited Islamabad to meet with Pakistani diplomats in a bid to improve bilateral relations.

Although Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has expressed interest in boosting ties with India, Pakistani military leaders are deeply skeptical of such efforts. And the testing of nuclear-capable missiles has, at times, appeared to serve as an outlet for the military to vent frustrations.

In early February, just days after President Obama signed a deal with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi for enhanced civilian nuclear cooperation, Pakistan test-fired a short-range cruise missile.

Shaiq Hussain contributed to ­­
this report.

Read more:

Pakistan looks to Russia for military, economic assistance


Tim Craig is The Post’s bureau chief in Pakistan. He has also covered conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and within the District of Columbia government.

© 1996-2015 The Washington Post

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Pakistan, Turkish Navies to hold bilateral Naval Exercise


Pakistan, Turkish Navies to hold bilateral Naval Exercise

17th February 2015


KARACHI: Pakistan Navy and Turkish Navy will hold a bilateral naval exercise commencing on 19 Feb with an aim to enhance interoperability and operational understanding.

Turkish Navy Ship TCG BUYUKADA arrived at Karachi to participate in the exercise, which includes an elaborate Harbour and Sea phase, said a statement on Tuesday.

The visiting ship was received by Turkish Naval Attache in Pakistan and senior officials of Pakistan Navy.

The exercise being first of the series, is a landmark reflection  of the historic ties between the two navies as well as a true manifestation of convergence of strategic interests of the two countries which will go a long way in promoting maritime security and stability in the region.

Pakistan Navy and Turkish Navy have been interacting since long in order to improve upon the level of coordination, interoperability and training.

The current bilateral navel exercise will lay sound foundation for subsequent exercises between both the navies in future.

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Pakistan Navy’s shelling of Dwarka in 1965 War






PNS Ghazi

PNS Ghazi















Pakistan Navy’s shelling of Dwarka in 1965 War


Since partition of the sub-continent in 1947, Pakistan and India have fought four armed conflicts, in 1947, 1965, 1971 (which led to the establishment of Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan) and the 1999 Kargil clash.


In 1965, India and Pakistan fought their second of three major wars from the issues arising from the control of Kashmir. This un-declared war broke out on August 15, 1965 and lasted until a UN-brokered cease-fire on September 22, 1965.


The war was inconclusive, costing the two sides a combined 7,000 human casualties but gaining them little.India, because of its size, population and strategic location has been trying to establish itself not only as a regional power but also as a global player. George K. Tanham, a US scholar, in his essay ‘Indian Strategic Thought: An Interpretative Essay’ has observed: ‘India’s strategic location, size, and tremendous population have contributed to Indian leaders’ belief in its greatness, its pre-eminence in the Indian Ocean region and its global importance.’


Following its well-documented strategy of “giantism”, India attacked Pakistan in the Lahore area at 0630 on 6th September 1965. Indian armed forces had a six-to-one superiority over the Pakistan defence forces with India having 867,000 soldiers as compared to Pakistan’s just 101,000 strong, spirited and professional soldiers.


While the Indo-Pakistan war-1965 saw Pakistan Air Force gaining superiority in air combat that gave Pakistan Army to fight with insurmountable willpower at Chawinda, Chumb, Sialkot sectors, Pakistan Navy did not lag behind in engaging Indian flotilla and bombarded Indian radar station at Dwarka.


“Operation Dwarka” as codenamed, will be long remembered in the annals of Pakistan Navy’s courageous expeditions, as on that day in 1965, the Pakistan Navy rose to the occasion; ever ready to perform its national commitment of defending the sea-frontiers of Pakistan.


The basic role of Pakistan Navy is to secure control of an area of the sea from any belligerent and containing enemy ships from approaching the coast and interfering with the trade and commerce. Pakistan Navy was already in the state of high alert providing seaward defence and within few minutes the ships cast away to perform the most sacred and singular duty of safe-guarding it’s Sea-frontiers from Indian aggression.


At that time, the Submarine Ghazi was the only submarine that the Pakistan Navy had in 1965. The PN submarine was deployed off Bombay to look after the heavy units of the Indian Navy. It spread a reign of terror in the rank and file of Indian warships and they could not come out of the harbour-including the aircraft carrier VIKRANT.


It was this blockade that enabled the Pakistan fleet to move in and blast the Indian naval fortress of Dwarka. The objectives of operation were: (a) to draw the heavy enemy units out of Bombay for the submarine GHAZI to attack; (b) to destroy the radar installation at Dwarka; (c) to lower Indian morale; (d) and to divert Indian Air effort away from the north. On 7 September 1965, PNS BABUR, PNS KHAIBAR, PNS BADR, PNS JAHANGIR, PNS ALAMGIR, PNS SHAHJAHAN and PNS TIPU SULTAN were tasked to be in position 293 degrees – 120 miles from Dwarka light house by 071800 E/Sep with maximum power available.


These ships carried out bombardment of Dwarka about midnight using 50 rounds per ship. At midnight, the ships were on Initial Position (IP) with all their guns loaded and the men ready to strike a historic strike on enemy’s face.


The city of Dwarka was completely blacked out and target could only be identified on radar. At 0024 bombardment was ordered to commence when ships were 5.5 to 6.3 miles from Dwarka light. It took only four minutes to complete the bombardment, firing altogether about 350 rounds on the target.


There was no appreciable resistance from the enemy and the ships safely arrived at their patrol area by 0635 on 8 Sep. According to some independent sources, one submarine, PNS Ghazi, kept the Indian Navy’s aircraft carrier INS Vikrant besieged in Bombay throughout the war.


Although the valiant expedition at Dwarka was a “limited engagement”, yet 4 ½ minutes of bombing at Dwarka had unprecedented implications on the morale of our troops.


The success of the Dwarka operation is attributed to the unflinching sense of alacrity to serve the nation beyond the call of duty marked by highest sense of patriotism and sacrifice.


Though the war was indecisive, India suffered much heavier material and personnel casualties compared to Pakistan. Many historians believe that had the war continued, with growing loss and decreasing supplies, India would have been eventually defeated.


Hard work over the past years had paid dividends. Our officers and sailors never allowed the numerical superiority and the weight of the armaments to effect their morale. Pakistan Navy Day is celebrated on 8th September every year throughout in Pakistan.


It is celebrated on the memory of martyred sailors who gave sacrifices of their life for the defence of the country. Pakistan Navy celebrates this day to tell the young generation of Pakistan that how sailors were brave at the critical time and were proud of offering sacrifices of their lives for the defence of Pakistan.


6th September 1965 remembers those who sacrificed their precious lives for the country and they are the source of inspiration to defend their country against any aggressor. Pakistan Navy derives immense source of motivation every time the month of September approaches.


Drawing inspiration from the unparallel conducts of the 1965’s war heroes, the naval personnel displayed personal example of valour during national catastrophes thereafter.


The lessons learnt from 1965 war, found its new dimensions when the navy sailors undertook the challenging and thrilling task with high spirits in the wake of floods-2011. Torrential rain and flash flooding continue to torment Pakistan’s Sindh province, affecting at least 700,000 people and forcing 60,000 from their homes till August 31, 2011.


The sailors of Pakistan Navy had been relentlessly shifting people from the dangerous places to the safer areas. The track record of Pakistan Navy was that it had rendered very useful services in rescuing and rehabilitating the victims after every inland flood, internal strife, bomb blast disposal, anti-dacoit operations, train accidents, etc.


Many equate the spirit manifested by the sailors during the most recent natural catastrophes like “Tsunami-2004”, “Pakistan Earthquake-2005” and “Pasni flash floods” with that of 1965 fervour. They are right in doing so, as the personal example of valour set by the naval officers and personnel during these national contingencies, revived the memories of the spirit exhibited in 1965 war. Pakistan Navy has been proactively engaged in eradicating the international piracy and succeeded in thwarting number of piracy attempts, like, support to MV SUEZ by PNS BABUR, rescuing Panama Flag Carrier MSC KALINA from 5 pirate skiffs. The latest episode of terrorist attack on PNS Mehran (a heavily guarded facility of Pakistan Navy, located along Shahrah-e-Faisal) by 10 armed militants, was successfully countered by the brave PN commandoes and security personnel.


Pakistan Navy was crafted out of Royal Indian Navy by Forces Reconstruction Committee (AFRC) on the Independence Day of Pakistan. The Pakistan Navy was given charge of two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two trawlers, four harbour launches with some 3580 personnel consisted of 180 officers and 3400 sailors.


Since then Pakistan Navy has been a proud defender of Pakistani waters and has never let any enemy vessel offend the 700 km long shore line of Pakistan along Sindh and Balochistan.


Pakistan Navy today, has become a responsible four-dimensional force: Surface ships; aircraft; submarines and the Special Service Group of Navy/Marines. Pakistan Navy is boosting these four components through intensive training, induction of new sophisticated sensors and equipment in line with modern trends, especially surveillance through maritime Unmanned Air Vehicles.


The induction of indigenously made F-22P frigates, “QING” class 6 nuclear sub-marines, fast attack ‘Stealth’ Craft” equipped with 8 surface-to-surface missiles from China and the acquisition of six modified P3C aircraft with latest avionics/sensors from United States into


Pakistan Navy will significantly add to the combat potential of Pakistan Navy


Fleet. Today, Pakistan Navy is proudly defending the sea-frontiers as well as protecting the maritime interests of Pakistan.


Pakistan Navy’s submarine arm has a great fighting tradition and has created a name for itself in combat. During the 1965 Indo-Pak War, when Pakistan had only one submarine, acquired a year earlier, it was able to bottle-up the Indian Navy while operating outside Bombay (Mumbai) harbour. It was a vertual blockade conducted not against merchant ships but against Naval ships who were reluctant to leave the safety of ports for fear of a lone submarine PNS-M GHAZI, operating in Indian territorial waters outside Bombay.

PNS-M GHAZI under the Command of Commander (Later Admiral) K.R. Niazi operated in Indian territorial waters from 6 to 23 September 1965 and sank two two Indian Warships during the period. The officers and sailors of GHAZI including her Captain were given ten operational awards for gallantry in operations during combat. These included two Sitara-i-Jurat and two Tamgha-i-Jurat.

On the second day of the 1965 Indo-Pak War, Pakistan Naval flotilla ships, BABUR, BADR, KHAIBAR, TIPPU SULTAN, SHAH JAHAN, JAHANGIR and ALAMGIR sailed out of Karachi and headed south towards the Indian Naval base at Bombay. The flotilla was under Commodore S. M. Anwar, Commander of the fleet who flew his flag on board the Cruiser PNS BABUR. The object of this deep sea-foray was to entice the Indian Navy out of their ports and give them battle at Sea. Where they could be dealt with by the submarine GHAZI in conjunction with the surface fleet. The Indian Navy’s Western flotilla based in Bombay stayed in port, discretion being the better part of valour, and did not accept battle. On its return passage the Pakistan flotilla bombarded the port of Dwarka hoping that the Indian Naval frigate TALWAR would sail out from Okka next door. But TALWAR also decided to stay in port.

Pakistan Navy’s performance in the 1965 Indo-Pak War is vividly described by India’s Vice Admiral Mihir Roy, a former Commander of the aircraft carrier VIKRANT and Commander-in-Chief of India’s Eastern Naval Command, in his book ‘War in the Indian Ocean’ published in 1995. He writes, ‘But the Bombayites failed to understand the lack of success by the Indian fleet, especially with sirens wailing, Jamnagar attacked and Dwarka shelled. But nonetheless, the naval bombardment of Dwarka with the Indian fleet still preparing to sail was an affront to the sailors in white, who could not understand what was holding the fleet back’.

Source: http://defence.pk/threads/pakistan-navy-submarines-a-silent-force-to-reckon-with.34672/#ixzz3Cc9vWPPk

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F-22P Zulfiquar-class frigate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
F-22P PNS Zulfiquar.JPG
The F-22P frigate PNS Zulfiquar
Class overview
Name: Zulfiquar (Sword) class
Builders: Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works,Karachi
Hudong Zhonghua shipyard, Shanghai
Operators: Naval Jack of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Navy (PN)
Preceded by: Type 053H3 frigate
Cost: USD $175 million
Planned: 4
Completed: 4
Active: 4
General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement: 2,500 tonnes (standard)[1][2][3]
3,144 tonnes (full load)[4]
Length: 123.2 m (404.19ft)
Beam: 13.8 m (45.27ft)
Draught: 3.76 m (12.34ft)
Propulsion: CODAD (Combined Diesel and Diesel)
2 × Tognum MTU 12V 1163 TB 83 @ 10.5MW, and 2 MTU cruise diesels @ 6.6MW.
Speed: 29 kn (54 km/h) maximum[1][2]
Range: 4,000 nmi (7,400 km)
Complement: 170 crew
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:




Aircraft carried: 1× Harbin Z-9EC ASW helicopter
Aviation facilities: Flight deck and enclosed hangar

Ships in class include:

  • PNS Zulfiquar (251)
  • PNS Shamsheer (252)
  • PNS Saif (253)
  • PNS Aslat (254)

The F-22P or Zulfiquar Class Frigate (Urduذوالفقار ‎ English: Sword class), is a general purpose frigate being built by Pakistan and China for the Pakistan Navy (PN). The first ship, PNS Zulfiquar, was handed over to the PN on 30 July 2009[5] and the second, PNS Shamsheer, on 23 January 2010.[6] The third frigate, PNS Saif was commissioned on 15 Sep 2011. The fourth and last frigate of F-22P series, PNS Aslat was inducted on 18 April 2013. [7]



Pakistan had been negotiating with China for the supply of 4 frigates since the late 1990s. The contract was signed on 4 April 2006 with the conclusion of negotiations for financing and technology transfer. The first ship was delivered in 30 July 2009, second 23 January 2010 and third one at 15 December 2010. The first three were being built at the Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai, China, while the last is under construction in Pakistan byKarachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) to be completed in 2013. The $750 million contract also includes 4-6 Harbin Z-9EC anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters [8] as well as ammunition for the frigates. According to one Chinese source Pakistan ordered four more F-22P frigates in 2007, although this has not been confirmed.[9]

The lead ship, PNS Zulfiquar, was launched on 5 April 2008[10] and handed over to the Pakistan Navy on 30 July 2009.[11][12] On the way to Pakistan, the frigate made a goodwill visit to Port KlangMalaysia, in late August 2009. Another goodwill visit was made to the Port of ColomboSri Lanka, during which the PNS Zulfiquar‘s Commanding Officer Captain Zahid Ilyas visited the Commander of the Sri Lanka Navy, Vice Admiral Thisara Samarasinghe, at the Navy Headquarters on 5 September.[4] PNS Zulfiquar arrived at Karachi, Pakistan, on 12 September 2009 [13] and the induction ceremony was held on 19 September 2009.[14]

The second frigate of the Zulfiquar class, PNS Shamsheer, was launched at Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard on 31 October 2008.[15][16] On 19 December 2009 it was commissioned in a ceremony at Shanghai,[17] and arrived in Pakistan on 23 January 2010. The third frigate of the Zulfiquar class, PNS Saif have been handed over to Pakistan Navy on 15 September 2010.[18] The Fourth & final Frigate of the contract PNS ASLAT which is indigenously built at Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Ltd commission on 17 April 2013 [19]

According to Admiral Noman BashirChief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy, the Navy intends to expand its fleet of F-22P frigates from the current four by constructing more ships. These may be an improved variant incorporating features of the Type 054A frigate, possibly designated F-23P, for which discussions have been held between Pakistan and China.[20]


The F-22P hull uses many of the radar cross-section reduction features of China’s Type 054 frigate to help it evade detection by radars mounted on other ships, aircraft and anti-ship missiles.[21]

76 mm main gun

The 76.2 mm calibre main gun is a Chinese development of the Russian AK-176M, the main difference being that the Chinese variant adopts a re-designed stealthy turret to reduce radar cross-section. The gun is designed to engage ships, aircraft and anti-ship missiles. In front of the main gun are two 6-cell RDC-32 anti-submarine rocket launchers.[3]

The frigate’s primary surface-to-surface missile armament comprises eight C-802 subsonic anti-ship missiles carried in two launchers with four cells each, fitted between the foremast and the funnel. These containers are also compatible with the CY series anti-submarine rockets and may be loaded with a combination of anti-ship and anti-submarine weapons.

FM-90N surface-to-air missile launcher

The FM-90N surface-to-air missile (SAM) system is fitted between the main deck and main gun. The launcher has eight cells each containing one missile and is fitted on a mount that can be elevated and traversed in the direction of the threat. The FM-90N can engage several targets, including supersonic and sub-sonic sea-skimming missiles, using different guidance modes simultaneously. The system is also designed to engage small targets such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).[22][23] However, the FM-90 has limited engagement angles as compared to a SAM fired from a vertical launch system. Also, the FM-90 has inferior range,and is also non-reloadable, hence it is not suited for blue water patrol

close-in weapon system (CIWS), the Type 730B, is mounted on the aircraft hangar. Comprising two seven-barrel gatling guns of 30 mm calibre, the F-22P is believed to be the first ship armed with the Type 730B,[24] which uses off-mount sensors such as the Type 347G radar and the OFC-3 electro-optic director. The guns are mounted side-by-side on the aircraft hangar, with the off-mount sensors in between. The CIWS can be upgraded with the FL-3000N fire-and-forget missile system by installing up to two single-round FL-3000N launchers on each existing CIWS gun mount.

Graphical design of the F-22P frigate

The Harbin Z-9EC anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopter is equipped with a surface-search radar, low frequency dipping sonar, radar warning receiver, doppler navigation system and armed with torpedoes.[25] The helicopter can be armed with one torpedo on the starboard side.[2] A small antenna on the roof may provide a data-link, allowing the Z-9 to act as a relay for targeting data between the ship and long range anti-ship missiles such as the C-802.[26]


Name Pennant Laid down Launched Commissioning
PNS Zulfiquar 251 12 October 2006 5 April 2008 [5] 19 September 2009 [14]
PNS Shamsheer 252 13 July 2007 31 October 2008 [27] 19 December 2009 [28][29][30]
PNS Saif 253 4 November 2008 28 May 2009 15 September 2010
PNS Aslat 254 [31] 10 Dec 2009 16 June 2011 [32][33][34] 18 April 2013[35]

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