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Archive for category KASHMIRIS-SUFFERS

Indian State Terrorism Internationalized the Kashmir Issue  By Sajjad Shaukat

Indian State Terrorism Internationalized the Kashmir Issue

By

Sajjad Shaukat

                                                           

Various forms of state terrorism by the Indian forces have continued unabated by the Indian security forces on the innocent Kashmiris in the Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK) in wake of sieges and prolonged curfews, including arrests and detentions of the Kashmir leaders. Since July 8, 2016, Indian security forces have martyred more than 600 innocent persons who have been protesting against the martyrdom of Burhan Wani and for the liberation of their land.

Some online authentic sources suggest that recent wave of Kashmiri Intifada (Uprising) has witnessed repression by the Indian armed forces, as large numbers of the dead and injured have been youngsters. The pellet guns used by security forces have damaged the faces of 1600 people and more than 1100 people have partially or wholly lost their eyesight.

Latest reports also disclosed that Indian security forces have also used chemical weapons against the Kashmiri civilians in violation of international law and Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

However, various tactics of state terrorism have been part of a deliberate campaign by the Indian army and paramilitary forces against the Muslim Kashmiris, especially since 1989. It has been manifested in brutal tactics like crackdowns, curfews, illegal detentions, massacre, targeted killings, sieges, burning the houses, torture, disappearances, rape, breaking the legs, molestation of Muslim women and killing of persons through fake encounters.

According to a report on human rights violations in the Indian Occupied Kashmir, since 1989, there have been deaths of 1,00000 innocent Kashmiris, 8,023 custodial killings, 1,50,771 arrests, 1,40,996 destruction of houses or buildings, 24,776 women widowed, 1,60,466 children orphaned and 20,086 women gang-raped/molested. Indian brutal securities forces have continued these atrocities.

In fact, Indian forces have employed various draconian laws like the Jammu and Kashmir Disturbed Areas Act, and the Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act and Public Safety Act in killing the Kashmiri people, and for the arbitrarily arrest of any individual for an indefinite period.

In this regard, besides Human Rights Watch, in its various reports, Amnesty International has also pointed out grave human rights violations in the Indian controlled Kashmir, indicating, “The Muslim majority population in the Kashmir Valley suffers from the repressive tactics of the security forces.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In its report on July 2, 2015, the Amnesty International has highlighted extrajudicial killings of the innocent persons at the hands of Indian security forces in the Indian Held Kashmir. The report points out, “Tens of thousands of security forces are deployed in Indian-administered Kashmir…the Armed Forces Special Powers Act allows troops to shoot to kill suspected militants or arrest them without a warrant…not a single member of the armed forces has been tried in a civilian court for violating human rights in Kashmir…this lack of accountability has, in turn, facilitated other serious abuses…India has martyred one 100,000 people. More than 8,000 disappeared (while) in the custody of army and state police.”

It is of particular attention that in 2008, a rights group reported unmarked graves in 55 villages across the northern regions of the Indian-held Kashmir. In the last few years, rights groups discovered nearly 3,000 unnamed graves in the various districts of Kashmir. In this respect, in August 2011, Indian Jammu and Kashmir State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) had officially acknowledged in its report that innocent civilians killed in the two-decade conflict have been buried in unmarked graves. The report indicated 2,156 unidentified bodies which were found in mass graves in various regions of the Indian-held Kashmir. Now, more unmarked graves have been found.

 It is mentionable that foreign sources and human rights organisations have disclosed that unnamed graves include those innocent persons, killed by the Indian military and paramilitary troops in the fake encounters including those who were tortured to death by the Indian secret agency RAW.

At present, Indian military and paramilitary troops are using all inhuman techniques of ethnic cleansing to disturb the majority population of the Kashmiris, which had been practised by the Serb forces in Bosnia and Kosovo.

Nevertheless, it is due to perennial state terrorism by the Indian security forces that Kashmir issue has been internationalized.

In this connection, European Union has passed a resolution about human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in the Indian-held Kashmir.

With the acceleration of the new Intifada, Indian is losing ‘illegitimate’ control in the Indian-held Kashmir.

Meanwhile, India arranged various false flag operations, especially that one which occurred at a military base in Uri on September 18, 2016. By manipulating this false flag operation, the BJP-led Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi not only shifted the blame game towards Islamabad but has also intensified war-hysteria against Pakistan. And Indian forces have continued shelling at the Line of Control (LoC) in Pakistani side of Azad Kashmir. While, Pakistani troops are giving a matching response to Indian unprovoked firing and are well-prepared for atomic war, as threatened by Indian army chief Gen. Bipin Rawat on January 14, this year. However, New Delhi’s main aim is to deflect the attention of the international community from the new phase of Kashmiri Intifada, while pressure has been mounting on the Modi government both domestically and internationally to resolve the dispute of Kashmir with Islamabad.

Nevertheless, it owing to  Indian cruel tactics that besides the media of Pakistan and India, Western media, including various politicians and UNO has pointed out India’s state terrorism on the Kashmiris who have been demanding their legitimate right of self-determination, as recognized by the UN resolutions.

In this respect, Pakistan’s recent serious and sincere effort in the United Nations for pointing out the brutal tactics of the Indian security forces in the Indian-held Kashmir and emphasizing upon the international community for settlement of this old issue is noteworthy.

In the recent past Pakistan’s permanent representative to the United Nations, Maleeha Lodhi reminded the UN officials of their duty to ensure that the rights of Kashmiris are protected. In her statement, she said, “Dubbing the Kashmiris, agitating for their right to self-determination, as terrorists was a travesty of truth and were further inflaming passions…This is perhaps the most important dimension of the Kashmir issue as the Indian government has repeatedly tried to delegitimise the freedom movement in Kashmir by declaring it to be a fringe movement of terrorists backed by Pakistan. The fact that the Indian government has conveniently ignored the wide support for the freedom movement is an indication that India is not even interested in genuinely addressing the grievances of the Kashmiri people. Even in the recent uprising in Kashmir following the killing of commander Burhan Wani…Surely, such big numbers of victims cannot be the result of Pakistan backed militants and devoid of indigenous grievances towards the Indian government…The attention of international community…must be turned towards the Kashmir issue.”

In response to the letter of Pakistan’s former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, on August 19, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon deplored the killings of the Kashmiris in Indian-held Kashmir, and urged India and Pakistan to settle Kashmir and other issues through dialogue by offering his “good offices”.

During his visit to Pakistan, in the joint press conference with the former Prime Minister Sharif on November 17, 2016, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged for an immediate resolution of the Kashmir dispute and stated that “the escalating tensions on the Pakistan-India border and the atrocities in Kashmir cannot be ignored. He elaborated, “The Turkish government and the Turkish nation stand in solidarity with the Kashmiri people.”

Earlier, the visiting Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Ayad Ameen Madani in Islamabad expressed grave concern over extra-judicial killings of people in the Indian Occupied Kashmir and added, “OIC will support Pakistan on Kashmir issue”.

Western politicians and media have also taken serious notice of the deteriorating situation of Kashmir. For instance, the Italian Minister for Defence, Mrs Roberta Pinotti who visited Pakistan said on September 19, 2016, that her country “opposes the use of force and lethal weapons against peaceful protestors in Kashmir…it cannot be allowed to go on.” She further said that Italy will apprise the international community about what is going on in Indian held Kashmir.

West’s renowned TV channels and newspapers are giving appropriate coverage to the ongoing uprising in Kashmir while pointing out Indian atrocities. For example, with the title, “India’s crackdown in Kashmir: is this the world’s first mass blinding?”, The Guardian wrote on November 8, 2016,  “The Long Read: A bloody summer of protest in Kashmir has been met with a ruthless response from Indian security forces, who fired hundreds of thousands of metal pellets into crowds of civilians, leaving hundreds blinded.”

It is notable that on the occasion of Indian Republic Day on January 26, 2018, a demonstration was organized by Kashmir Council EU in front of Indian Embassy in Brussels, the capital of Belgium. Holding placards and banners with a number of slogans against India, a large number of the people from different walks—the protesters called for the immediate end of Indian atrocities in Indian-controlled Kashmir while raising slogans against the human rights violations there.

Nonetheless, Indian perennial state terrorism in the Indian Occupied Kashmir has internationalized the Kashmir issue.

Sajjad Shaukat writes on international affairs and is author of the book: The US vs Islamic Militants, Invisible Balance of Power: Dangerous Shift in International Relations

Email: sajjad_logic_pak@hotmail.com

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India’s Human Rights Violations in Kashmir By Sajjad Shaukat

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India’s Human Rights Violations in Kashmir By Sajjad Shaukat

 

Gross human rights violations in the Indian Occupied Kashmir have become a permanent feature of the Indian security forces. Since 1947, in order to maintain its illegal control, India has continued its repressive regime in the Occupied Kashmir through various machinations. In this regard, various forms of state terrorism have been part of a deliberate campaign by the Indian army and paramilitary forces against Muslim Kashmiris, especially since 1989. It has been manifested in brutal tactics like crackdowns, curfews, illegal detentions, massacre, targeted killings, sieges, burning the houses, torture, disappearances, rape, breaking the legs, molestation of Muslim women and killing of persons through fake encounter. According to a report on human rights violations in the Indian Occupied Kashmir, since 1989, there have been deaths of 1,00000 innocent Kashmiris, 7,023 custodial killings, 1,22,771 arrests, 1,05,996 destruction of houses or buildings, 22,776 women widowed, 1,07,466 children orphaned and 10,086 women gang-raped/molested. Indian brutal securities forces have continue these atrocities. In fact, Indian forces have employed various draconian laws like the Jammu and Kashmir Disturbed Areas Act, and the Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act and Public Safety Act in killing the Kashmiri people, and for the arbitrarily arrest of any individual for an indefinite period. Besides Human Rights Watch, in its various reports, Amnesty International has also pointed out grave human rights violations in the Indian controlled Kashmir, indicating, “The Muslim majority population in the Kashmir Valley suffers from the repressive tactics of the security forces.” In its report on July 2, 2015, the Amnesty International has highlighted extrajudicial killings of the innocent persons at the hands of Indian security forces in the Indian Held Kashmir. The report points out, “Tens of thousands of security forces are deployed in Indian-administered Kashmir…the Armed Forces Special Powers Act allows troops to shoot to kill suspected militants or arrest them without a warrant…not a single member of the armed forces has been tried in a civilian court for violating human rights in Kashmir…this lack of accountability has in turn facilitated other serious abuses…India has martyred one 100,000 people. More than 8,000 disappeared (while) in the custody of army and state police.” In this respect, European Union has passed a resolution about human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in the Indian held Kashmir. It is of particular attention that in 2008, a rights group reported unmarked graves in 55 villages across the northern regions of the Indian-held Kashmir. Then researchers and other groups reported finding thousands of mass graves without markers. In this respect, in August, 2011, Indian Jammu and Kashmir State Human Rights Commission officially acknowledged in its report that innocent civilians killed in the two-decade conflict have been buried in unmarked graves. And foreign sources and human rights organisations have revealed that unnamed graves include those innocent persons, killed by the Indian military and paramilitary troops in the fake encounters including those who were tortured to death by the Indian secret agency RAW. Indian authorities are not willing to talk with Kashmiri people on political grounds. New Delhi reached to a conclusion that only bullet is the right way of dealing with Kashmiris, demanding their right of self-determination. Surprisingly, Indian successive governments are trying to ignore the dynamics of the freedom movement of Kashmiris for the sake of their alien rule. But, New Delhi is still showing its intransigence in order to resolve Kashmir dispute with Pakistan by neglecting the fact that Kashmir remains a nuclear flashpoint between both the neighbouring countries. In this context, Egbert Jahn in his book, “Kashmir: Flashpoint for a Nuclear War or Even a Third World War?” has pointed out, “The Kashmir conflict is embedded in the wider conflict over the incomplete creation of nations and states on the Indian subcontinent, which during the east-west conflict even threatened at times to escalate into a nuclear world war between Pakistan and the USA on the one side and India and the USSR on the other. Until now, there have been three wars between India and Pakistan over the Jammu and Kashmir: in 1947–49, 1965 and 1999… finally, the Indo-Chinese border war of 1962…after these wars…and could unexpectedly again lead to a regional and under certain circumstances…even a major nuclear war or a Third World War.” Meanwhile, like the previous year, Pakistan’s recent serious and sincere effort at the annual session of the United Nations—the recent speech of Pakistan’s prime minister and his meeting with the American president, highlighting the Kashmir dispute and demanding its solution has infused a new spirit among the Kashmiri people. Kashmir dispute cannot be seen in isolation it is part of New Delhi’s other developments against Pakistan and the Muslims. In this respect, as part of anti-Muslim and anti-Pakistan approach, leader of the BJP and Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi is giving impetus to Hindu chauvinism which has resulted into a number of assaults on the Muslims and Pakistanis inside India. Under his rule, Indian security forces have also accelerated unprovoked firing at the Line of Control in Kashmir including Working Boundary. Besides, in connivance with New Delhi, Bangladesh government and Awami League have launched a massive media campaign in order to spread venom against Pakistan and its armed forces and against all those Bangladeshi nationals who were loyal to the state during 1971 crisis. In this regard, while addressing a ceremony during his Bangladesh tour, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi openly stated on June 7, 2015 that Indian forces helped Mukti Bahini (Militants) to turn East Pakistan into Bangladesh. He elaborated that former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee had played an active role in separating Bangladesh from Pakistan, and he had also come to Delhi in 1971 to participate in the Satyagraha Movement, launched by Jana Sangh as a volunteer to garner support for the Mukti Bahini members. It is noteworthy that since Prime Minister of Bangladesh and leader of the ruling party, Awami League, Sheikh Hasina Wajid came into power, India has been employing various tactics to entrap Bangladesh by exploiting her pro-Indian tilt to fulfill its strategic interests. In this context, Prime Minister Hasina Wajid has continuously been pursuing Indian directions by conducting anti-Pakistan campaign. Therefore, after passing of 42 years to the events of 1971, which resulted into the separation of East Pakistan, Abdul Qadir, the leader of Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) was hanged because of his loyalty to Pakistan. However, Bangladesh’s ruling party, under Sheikh Hasina Wajid maintains an anti-Pakistan posture with sinister designs of expressing animosity, antagonism and unrestrained emotional flare-up. The aim is to exploit feelings of masses by keeping the “hate Pakistan” agenda alive. This enables Awami League and Hasina Wajid to remain significant in Bangladesh’s power politics despite their failure to deliver good governance to the People. It also helps them to appease their mentors in India. Using abusive language against Pakistan and its armed forces makes Hasina Wajid relevant in Indian politics, while she herself prefers those entities which derive sadistic pleasure by depicting Pakistan in bad light. By neglecting Islamabad’s positive approach, Bangladesh government has continued its anti-Pakistan approach to please India. It could be judged from the statement of Prime Minister Hasina Wajid who has vocally said, “Bangladesh has no room for the people loving Pakistan.” Nevertheless Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has been following pro-Indian policies. In this respect, on the secret insistence of India, unlike the past years, a ceremony was held in Dhaka on March 24, 2013, with full pump and show to honour ‘Foreign Friends of Bangladesh Award,’ in relation to the separation of East Pakistan. For this aim, several foreign friends who included various institutions and media anchors from various countries, particularly India were invited. The main purpose behind was to distort the image of Pakistan and its armed forces regarding alleged atrocities, committed against the Bengalis. Notably, in December, 2012, Prime Minister Hasina had refused to attend D-8 conference in Islamabad unless Pakistan tendered apology for the alleged genocide of Bengalis. While, a famous Bengali journalist Sarmila Bose authored a book, “Dead Reckoning: Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War” after thorough investigation. Her book was published in 2011. While countering exaggerations of the Indian and Bengali Journalists, Bose argues that the number of Bengalis killed in 1971 was not three million, but around 50,000, while Bengalis were equally involved in the bloodshed of Punjabis, Biharis, Pashtoons and Balochis. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was already in connivance with India for separation of East Pakistan. Therefore, when East Pakistan was occupied by Indian Army in 1971, he stated with pleasure that his 24 years old dream of an independent Bangladesh had been fulfilled. While commenting upon 1971 tragedy, Indra Gandhi clearly divulged Indian hegemonic designs by saying “Today we have sunken Two Nation Theory in bay of Bengal.” Majib had earlier developed his contacts with Indian rulers and training camps of Mukti Bahini, established by Indian army and RAW which also funded Mujibur Rehman’s general elections in 1970. Undoubtedly, various anti-Pakistan developments such as Modi’s open confession regarding Indian support to militants of Mukti Bahini, his arrival in Dhaka to receive award of Atal Bihari Vajpai, presentation of ‘Surrender Ceremony’ photograph by Bangladeshi leader to Modi, ruthless death sentences to Jamat-e-Islami Pro-Pakistan leaders under highly doubtful and objectionable trials etc. show that Indo-Bangladesh media nexus backed by RAW has become more active for last 4/5 years to create mistrust among people of Bangladesh against Pakistan. Moreover, Indian cross-border terrorism in Pakistan, her support to Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) which is responsible for terror-acts in Pakistan—also involved in the massacre of innocent children at Army Public School, Peshawar might be noted as instance of anti-Pakistan Nonetheless, it is due to lack of action on the part the US-led big powers that India’s human rights violations continue unabated in the Occupied Kashmir. Sajjad Shaukat writes on international affairs and is author of the book: US vs Islamic Militants, Invisible Balance of Power: Dangerous Shift in International Relations Email: sajjad_logic@yahoo.com

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LET THE KASHMIRI WOMEN LIVE by Mehwish Zia

LET THE KASHMIRI WOMEN LIVE

by

Mehwish Zia 

 

 

 

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Let’s stand in their shoes. How does it feel to stay away from home in a place where there is a miserable story behind every face? A land of misery where humans breathe but do not live their lives, voices are suppressed by mocking the humanity and children grow up under the shadow of fear. A land where daring freedom fighters are terrorists, helpless women are subjects of sexual comfort and innocent youngsters are a threat. A land where extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances, sexual assault against women and harassment of students are a part of the routine. No matter how you feel you are forced to do whatever your superiors tell you. No matter what happens in front of your eyes, your job is to zip your mouth and say yes to the call of duty .i.e. suppression of the cause of Kashmiris. Above all is the regret of being part of a dirty game. This is no different from fighting the internal demon. Even if there is no regret, frustration is a good reason to commit crimes against humanity. The result is soldiers purging their inner frustration by raping unfortunate women, beating innocent youngsters to death, shooting their own colleagues and committing suicide by shooting themselves with their service rifle. Unless you are a psychopath or a serial killer, you will go through the same hell and face the same consequences.

 

 

Perhaps women are the worst victim of human rights infringement in Indian Occupied Kashmir. According to Kashmir Media Service, 2,305 women have been martyred by Indian army and police during the last 25 years. Since Jan 1989, almost 10,129 women have been gang-raped / molested whereas 22,786 have been widowed. Abduction and sexual harassment of Kashmiri women is a tool to stop , not only women but also men , from raising their voices against Indians. The number of Kashmiri women suffering from psychological disorders is greater than that of men. Mental stress is one of the major reasons behind the infertility of Kashmiri women. Being a part of society where a woman is either dependent on her father, son, brother or husband, death/imprisonment of the guardian exposes them to a number of challenges. Though those who are responsible for the incidents like Kunan Poshpora mass rape and Shopian tragedy never received what they deserved, unfortunate women faced far worse consequences.Just because Indian soldiers raped them , a pregnant woman gave birth to a child with a fractured arm, a 16 year old girl married a 50 year old divorcee , woman committed suicide and what not.It is the Kashmiri woman who faces difficulties in getting married, who could not continue studies , who becomes a cause of the social isolation of her family, who is nobody but a burden for the whole family or sometimes for the whole village. Why? Who cares!

 

Every intergovernmental organization has three main points at the top of its agenda, i.e. international peace, political stability and economic welfare. On the contrary, God knows what SAARC is doing among the list of intergovernmental organizations. One of the significant members of SAARC is the cause of the death of 94,110 Kashmiris during the last 25 years . Unfortunately, since the time of its conception SAARC has not even a single noteworthy achievement . Kashmir issue is the main reason behind it . Even in the recent SAARC conference , the representatives of India and Pakistan could not do more than just warmly shaking hands and exchanging gossips. If SAARC is sincere with its cause , it has to play its role in the resolution of Kashmir issue. The resolution of Kashmir issue is mandatory for the stability of not only Kashmir, but also of South Asia. Therefore, it must be resolved in accordance with the resolutions of the United Nations. Or else, the suffering of Kashmiris will never end.

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GLOBAL HUMANITY IS CULPABLE ON KASHMIR: Discriminatory Approach of United Nations and International Community in Resolving Kashmir Issue

Discriminatory Approach of United Nations and International Community in Resolving Kashmir Issue

“Oh Morning breeze if you happen to pass over to Geneva,

Tell them that a nation was sold but was sold very cheap”.  –  Dr. Allama Iqbal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic. My topic is ‘discriminatory approach of United Nations and international community in resolving Kashmir issue.

Six and half decades have gone past and Kashmir dispute is yet to be resolved. No light is seen at the end of the tunnel and people of Kashmir continue to suffer immensely under the boots of Indian security forces. It has remained unsolved because of India’s intransigence and UN’s indolence.

While India has continued to play hide and seek to gain time and avoid settlement of the dispute, UN has tended to ignore India’s evasive tactics, lame excuses, double speak, stubbornness and policy of non-cooperation. Instead of admonishing India and taking it to task for continuously defying UN resolutions, it has yielded to India’s gimmickry and cunning manipulations.

Apathy of the UN. It will be worth recounting apathetic attitude of the UN to tackle this festering problem.       

UNSC resolution dated 17 January 1948 called upon India and Pakistan to cease hostilities, carryout simultaneous withdrawal of tribesmen and Indian troops, set up a neutral administration and hold a plebiscite under UN control.

Next UN resolution dated 6 February 1948 appealed to both parties to seek a solution through negotiations under auspices of UNSC, withdraw all irregular forces and armed individuals. Plebiscite was to be supervised under UNSC.

On 21 April 1948, Belgium, Canada, UK and USA, resolution was drafted envisaging holding of plebiscite after restoration of peace under a Plebiscite Administrator.

Pakistan rejected this resolution since it was clearly biased in favor of India. It had asked Pakistan to withdraw all its troops from territories of J&K while allowing India to retain forces for maintenance of law and order.

Another resolution was adopted by Security Council on 5 January 1949. UNCIP prepared a detailed plan for plebiscite in which it was decided to hold plebiscite under supervision of a Plebiscite Administrator. On 4 February 1949, Pakistan withdrew all tribesmen and Pakistani nationals from Kashmir.

Framework of UN Resolutions.

 

 

Basic points of all UN resolutions were: –

·       Settlement of Kashmir dispute through a plebiscite under UNO asking Kashmiris to choose between India and Pakistan.

·       Rejection of India’s claim that Kashmir is legally Indian Territory.

·       Acceptance of self-determination as governing principle for settlement of Kashmir dispute.

Plebiscite Administrator Chester W. Nimitz

 

On 22 March 1949, the UN appointed Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, as Plebiscite Administrator for J&K.

On 28 April, UNCIP formulated a program of demilitarization and issued a schedule for withdrawal of troops and fixing of demarcation line based upon factual positions occupied by two armies on January 1, 1949.

India demanded disbandment and disarming of Azad Kashmir forces as a condition for phasing withdrawal of Indian troops. Pakistan agreed to withdraw all Pakistani troops from Kashmir as soon as schedule of withdrawal of bulk of Indian forces was communicated.

Agreement to demarcate cease-fire line and stationing of UNCIP observers was signed on 27 July 1949.

India refused to submit her plan and rejected proposition of arbitration on 8 September. Negotiations over Kashmir bogged down since India insisted that unless all AK forces were disbanded and Pakistan withdrew its troops from occupied areas of Kashmir, no further talks were possible.

Another proposal of simultaneous withdrawal of Indian and Pakistani troops and reduction of State troops and AK forces was also spurned by India. Under non-cooperative conditions, it was not possible for Nimitz to hold plebiscite and he returned to Geneva.

Gen A.G.L. McNaughton Demilitarization Plan

 

After Nimitz, McNaughton was appointed to mediate. On 29 December 1949, he proposed progressive demilitarization leading to plebiscite, and appointing a UN representative to supervise it. Same was accepted by Pakistan but turned down by India.

Reason for India’s non-acceptance was that distinction between two forces legitimized concept of Azad Kashmir. India also insisted on detaining Indian forces after demilitarization.

In the face of divergent perceptions McNaughton had to give up as a bad job in January 1950.

Owen Dixon Formula

On 14 March 1950 Security Council adopted a resolution and appointed Owen Dixon from Australia as the UN representative on 10 April 1950 to mediate. Both Pakistan and India promptly accepted his nomination.

Dixon suggested demilitarization of Kashmir before holding plebiscite. He proposed holding plebiscite in limited area consisting Kashmir Valley and adjacent areas, and division of rest of State between India and Pakistan. Jammu and Ladakh were to go to India and Gilgit, Baltistan to Pakistan.

His proposals were accepted by Pakistan but did not find favor with India since she viewed Pakistan as an aggressor.

Dixon concluded that India would not agree to any arrangement on demilitarization in which Indian troops were made to withdraw or any form of plebiscite unfavorable to India and hence departed.

Commonwealth Leaders Plan

Commonwealth Conference held on 16 January 1951 proposed withdrawal of forces from Kashmir by India and Pakistan and stationing of a Commonwealth Force in their place. Proposal was accepted by Pakistan but turned down by India.

Australian Prime Minister suggested keeping joint Indo-Pakistan forces as well and Plebiscite Administrator to raise local security forces to meet security and administrative needs. These were acceptable to Pakistan but unacceptable to India.     

Frank Graham Proposals

Dr. Frank P. Graham was appointed as successor of Dixon on 30 April 1951.

On 7 September, he put forward a twelve-point proposal. Disagreement arose on quantum and disposition of troops and induction of plebiscite administrator. Based on the report, Security Council adopted a resolution on 10 November 1951.

In a meeting in Geneva in August 1952, both sides failed to agree on the question of powers of the Plebiscite Administrator and the matter had to be dropped.

India maintained that only Indian forces will remain on India’s side of the cease-fire line.

On 27 March 1953, Graham informed the Security Council that his efforts to break the impasse on Kashmir had failed. It marked the end of his mission.

Anglo – American Resolution

Anglo-American resolution introduced on 5 November 1952 suggested India to retain 12000 to 18000 troops and Pakistan to keep 3000 to 6000 on either side of the ceasefire line. This resolution was accepted by Pakistan but rejected by India saying that India wished to retain a minimum number of 28000 armed forces. In Azad Kashmir, it said that there should only be 4000 civil armed forces.

Gunner Jarring Efforts

In February 1957, Security Council decided to send the next UN representative Gunner Jarring of Sweden to find a way-out.

In September 1957, Pakistan offered to withdraw all Pakistani and Azad Kashmir troops from Kashmir if immediately replaced by UN troops. This proposal being very practical and reasonable was welcomed by Jarring but not by India.

Jarring’s abject failure waned the interest of Security Council and the matter was once again consigned to cold freezer till 1962.

 

1962 Sino-India Border Conflict

During Sino-India conflict in 1962, in response to US and UK advice, President Ayub Khan decided not to exploit the situation in Kashmir and agreed to hold talks with India. Six rounds of talks were held between the two foreign ministers Swaran Singh and ZA Bhutto from 26 December 1962 to 16 May 1963 but proved fruitless.

India suggested a readjustment of ceasefire line to settle the dispute, which Pakistan rejected. Pakistan proposed a plebiscite confined to the Valley and placed under international control for 12 to 15 months prior to holding of the vote; or else, people’s wishes to be ascertained in some other form to settle the dispute. These were again rejected by India.         

Simla Agreement. Simla agreement in 1972 changed the status of ceasefire line to LoC and policy of bilateralism was adopted, which suited India.   

International Court of Justice Mission in 1993

In 1993, ICJ recommended a plebiscite be held in Muslim majority areas. India rejected it saying it gave strength to ‘two-nation theory’. India labeled it as a blatant attempt to reactivate involvement of UNSC in Kashmir issue, since in her view UN resolutions had become obsolete after Simla Agreement and had rubbed off scope of any third party.

Ineffective UN. Our claim on Kashmir is based on at least 18 UNSC resolutions. Of the 18, four were adopted in 1948, one in 1950, two in 1951, one in 1952, three in 1957, five in 1965 and remaining two in 1971. Since then, the UN has practically withdrawn from the issue and no other resolution was adopted.

In the last 65 years, the only role the UN played was to affect a cease-fire in January 1949 and posting of UN observers along the cease-fire line, later on converted into LoC in 1972. 

Role of USA

Although the US initially tried to play the role of a facilitator to make two sides sit and talk; its focus has been primarily on the ‘LoC as the international border’ solution. Conflict management, and not conflict resolution, appears to be the goal of Washington.

After 9/11, Islamic terrorism has penetrated deep into the psyche of Americans. Pakistan is viewed as a dangerous country because it has a frail economic base and unbridled Islamic extremism. They fear nuclear weapons might fall into wrong hands.

President Obama who had initially raised high hopes has now stated in clear terms that the US will not play any role in the resolution of Kashmir conflict since it is a bilateral matter between India and Pakistan.

Sole super power has not for once admonished India not to trample human rights in Kashmir or in other parts of India where insurgencies are raging. India’s communal extremism and nuclear proliferation are also looked the other way. 

Russia. Former Soviet Union at the behest of India frustrated all attempts of the UNSC through its veto. It is still the prisoner of its past on supporting Indian stand on Kashmir but is no more as committed as it used to be in its hey days.

China. It has explicitly stood by Pakistan and Kashmir issue. It will however be reluctant to vociferously support our stance on Kashmir on the basis of human rights violations and right of self determination since the same principles are being promoted for Tibet. Sensitivity of Sinkiang and fast growing economic ties with India would keep her restrained.   

European Community. Some North European nations want South Asia to follow their examples in conflict resolution like Eland Island case,Trieste case and the Andorra case. Britain and Germany have always expressed their willingness to facilitate a dialogue between India and Pakistan but none have agreed to mediate. None including US want to apply the formula applied in East Timor and the division of Sudan in Kashmir.

Muslim Ummah. Muslim world is a house divided rived in own problems and stands on a weak wicket. Saudi Arabia, Iran and Turkey are the only Muslim countries pledging moral support but none is in a position to resolve the dispute. 

International Community. Because of India’s size, economic market and military prowess, apathetic international community has chosen to ignore India’s blatant human rights violations in Kashmir and its hegemonic policies. Pakistan rather than India is advised to exercise restraint.

India’s diplomatic success

India has refused to recognize validity of UN resolutions on Kashmir. As a matter of policy she considers Kashmir to be a resolved issue and its integral part.

India has been successful in painting Kashmiri freedom fighters seeking right of self-determination as a bunch of terrorists aided and abetted by Pakistan.

In view of India’s enhanced importance, USA and other western powers have bought her stance on Kashmir and have repeatedly warned Pakistan not to support terrorists in Occupied Kashmir or to house them or train them on its soil.

Kashmiris Left Out

Kashmiris have somehow been given no relevance in the dispute. They were not considered a party at UNSC discussions nor were they thought fit for inclusion in the Tashkent talks after the 1965 war. Policy of bilateralism was accepted at Simla in 1972 over the heads of Kashmiris.

Differing views within Kashmir

Within Kashmiris, various groups view the problem differently. After splitting of APHC, moderate group led by Mirwaiz Farooq say that after 9/11, stratagem of dispute resolution by means of force had become redundant. They argue that dialogue process should be given a chance and call for a solution beyond UN resolution. They seem quite inclined to abdicate plebiscite demand.

Syed Ali Shah Geelani faction and some others strongly feel that self-determination through fair and free plebiscite under the UN is the only way to solve the tangle and feel that slogan of peace is a deception.

Both factions want to secede to Pakistan and are not inclined to the option of independence.

JKLF insists on independent Kashmir. 

Idea of United States of Kashmir floated by Sardar Abdul Qayum was seconded by Mirwaiz.

Sardar Sikandar advocates Chenab Formula in which even Jammu and Ladakh become part of Pakistan.

Peoples Democratic Party’s President Mehbooba Mufti proposed ‘self-rule’ in all regions of erstwhile J&K state.

Gen Musharraf floated the idea of dividing Kashmir into seven regions and tackling each separately.

In the entire gamut of proposals offered by various groups in Kashmir, none want to have any sort of linkage with India. Puppet government in occupied Kashmir is the only one desiring alignment with India, but has no credibility among the Kashmiris.

Pakistan’s Hands Skillfully Tied

We in Pakistan and in Kashmir fervently seek UN supervised plebiscite under the blissful belief that the result will be in Pakistan’s favor.

Pakistan’s alliance with the US led coalition to combat global terrorism has made it handicapped to provide assistance to beleaguered freedom fighters in occupied Kashmir.

Pakistan has been charge-sheeted on multiple charges, putting it on the defensive.

With onset of peace talks with India, it has become difficult for Pakistan to indulge in effective propaganda campaign to highlight Indian security forces brutalities in Kashmir.

The world is not prepared to listen to Pakistan’s side of the story that India’s growing military prowess will pose a danger to world peace.

Fear of crossing ‘Indian tolerance threshold’ and being declared as a terrorist State inhibited our leaders to support Kashmiri uprising boldly as opposed to what India had done in case of former East Pakistan crisis.

Only course of putting meaningful pressure on India through a low intensity proxy war by the freedom fighters and jihadis has also been given a deathblow after enforcement of new laws on terrorism.

India has never been penalized by USA to force her to abide by UN resolutions or to curb human rights violations in Kashmir.

Pakistan hands have been skillfully tied and India given a free hand to crush freedom movement in Kashmir, particularly with fenced LoC, all Jihadis bridled and Kashmiri freedom fighters left high and dry to face the military might of Indian soldiers.

Some Hard Realities

UNSC has proved to be an ineffective body, selective and subservient to USA.

Bilateralism is a big farce to keep the issue under the carpet.

Ongoing composite dialogue is meant to buy time.

Once India becomes a recognized world power, resolution of core disputes would not be possible through peaceful or military means.

No amount of sweet talk would make India budge from its stated position. In India’s view, Azad Kashmir is the only dispute, which they are prepared to grant to Pakistan provided LoC is converted into permanent border.

Proponents of peace talks favor making LoC irrelevant by softening it and consider it as a possible solution.

Practical solution that Pakistanis may accept is partition on communal lines, which would imply that Kashmir Valley would also come to Pakistan.

With nuclearisation of South Asia, settlement of Kashmir issue by force is no more valid. Sooner or later, a political solution has to be worked out.

Whatever the solution arrived at, it would prove fruitful only if it is acceptable to all three parties to the dispute. No lasting solution can be found without concurrence of Kashmiris.

Kashmir would remain ablaze as long as Kashmiris want it to remain on fire.

Public opinion across all divides in the Valley remains firmly committed to the concept of self-determination.

Time has come for India to stop seeking shelter behind empty rhetoric to prevent serious dialogue on resolution of Kashmir conflict. Gimmicks and deceptions will not work.

International community must rise from its slumber and listen to the shrieks of Kashmiris languishing in open prison for last 65 years and resolve this longstanding dispute. Kashmir has become a nuclear flash point. Unless this lava is defused, it may lead to catastrophic nuclear war.   

 

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