Our Announcements

Not Found

Sorry, but you are looking for something that isn't here.

Archive for April, 2012

A DYNAMITE DABANG PAKISTANI WOMAN’S MESSAGE TO PILLAGER ZARDARI

pil·lage/ˈpilij/in Urdu Dakoo, Lutera

Verb:
Rob (a place) using violence, esp. in wartime.
 
Noun:
The action of pillaging a place or property, esp. in wartime.
 
Synonyms:
verb.  plunder – loot – sack – rob – maraud – ransack – despoil
noun.  plunder – robbery – sack – rapine – loot – spoliation

 

 

A PAKISTANI VENTS IN CYBERSPACE

 

 


“Zardari is the most corrupted person in the world. He is destroying Pakistan intentionaly thus he should be hung without any delay. If time comes i will not hesitate to participate in this holly ceremony. A person of such a character must be behind bars forever. It seems that he does’t believe in accountability after death, if he would be believing he would have acted differently. By his actions he isn’t a humanbeing. He is a wild animal and should be in the cage.One can easily finds his wealth which is piling up faster than ever everyday. Poor people of Pakistan geting more poorer and hardly find the bread for a day. He keeps the people, who work on his land as if they are his slaves now he is treating the whole nation as his slaves. He should shame if he has any but i doubt it.According to islam such crimes will be severely punished and there are seven parts of the hell,IN which part he should go ALL-MIGHTY will decide. But i pray he should be given the most dangerous part of the hell. Millions of PAKISTANI are sleeping hungry everyday because of him and dying more than that. I CURSE HIM HATE HIM AND WISH HIM A VERY MISERABLE LIFE IN FUTURE. people of Pakistan wake up and try to find the solution and kick him out of the power.”GOD SAVE PAKISTAN”.

ZIA.

No Comments

How India Steals US Technology? Symantec’s source code compromised on India’s military and intelligence servers

The hackers claimed to have discovered Symantec’s source code in a hack they conducted on India’s military and intelligence servers. A hacker group calling itself the Lords of Dharmaraja claims to have discovered Symantec’s source code in a hack it conducted on India’s military and intelligence servers. In a post  on Wednesday on the bulletin board Pastebin, the hackers wrote, “We have discovered within the Indian Spy Program source codes of a dozen software companies,” which they said had signed agreements with an Indian defense program and its Central Bureau of Investigation.

Symantec confirms hackers stole Norton source code

Friday 06 January 2012 12:03

Symantec has confirmed that hackers have stolen a segment of its source code for its Norton anti-virus software, but says the stolen code is from two older enterprise products, one of which has been discontinued.

“The code involved is four and five years old.  This does not affect Symantec’s Norton products for our consumer customers,” the company said in a statement.

Lords of Dharmaraja, an Indian industrial espionage group, “described the confidential workings of Symantec’s Norton Antivirus threat-detection product.”

A hacker group, which calls itself the Lords of Dharmaraja, posted a file on Pastebin that it said described the confidential workings of Symantec’s Norton Antivirus threat-detection product, and threatened to release the source code, according to theNew York Times.

In the post, which has since been removed, the hackers claimed to have discovered Symantec’s source code in a hack they conducted on India’s military and intelligence servers. Many governments do require source code from suppliers to prove the software is not spyware.

Symantec’s confirmed that a third party had been breached, but said it was still gathering information on the details and was not in a position to provide specifics on the third party involved.

“Presently, we have no indication that the code disclosure impacts the functionality or security of Symantec’s solutions,” Symantec said in a statement.

The company said there are no indications that customer information has been impacted or exposed, but Symantec is working to develop remediation process to ensure long-term protection for customers’ information.

The New York Times suggest that the stolen documentation, and any source code, could be exploited by hackers to corrupt the antivirus program or write malicious code that circumvents Norton’s product altogether, but security expert Amichai Shulman disagrees.

“Code leakage will not keep the Symantec folks awake too late at night, and certainly not their customers,” he says.

According to Shulman, chief technology officer at Imperva, there is not much new hackers can learn from the code.

“Most of the anti-virus product is based on attack signatures. By basing defences on signatures, malware authors continuously write malware to evade signature detection,” he said.

As noted in Imperva’s blog on the Black Hole Exploit, only 30% of AV would have been effective, said Shulman as malware versions continuously evolve in such a rate where signatures cannot keep up with them.

“The workings of most of the anti-virus’ algorithms have also been studied already by hackers in order to write the malware that defeats them,” he said.

According to Shulman, Symantec competitors are the most likely ones to benefit from having the source. Hackers would be able to exploit the actual program only if the source code is recent and they can find serious vulnerabilities, he said.

References

Ref 1

Ref 2

No Comments

US & EUROPE’S Ostrich-like attitude towards Indians takeover of strategic businesses-II How India Steals US Technology?

The 2005 Annual Report to Congress on FECIE reported that 108 countries – both friend and foe – were involved in information collection efforts against the United States.[12] Russia, and India top the list.

The 2005 Annual Report to Congress on FECIE reported that 108 countries – both friend and foe – were involved in information collection efforts against the United States.[12] Russia, and India top the list. The FECIE reports indicate that foreign collectors tend to target dual-use technology, which can be used for both peaceful and military objectives, and military technology. There is no dispute that foreign governments go after trade secrets for the sake of national security advantage. But what is the United States government’s role in company v. company warfare? Should investigations be considered a counterintelligence or law enforcement matter? Do these old jurisdictional boundaries and responsibilities still work? What should be a secret, and what is the government’s role in making that determination? What can be done to protect US interests?


How India Steals US Technology?

The National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC) later became the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX). In 2004, the ONCIX reported to Congress that

  • “… a recent private US survey indicated that more than half of the impacted firms do not report the breach for fear of reducing shareholder value. As a result, no one is certain how much technology and sensitive proprietary information are lost annually to cyber theft.”
  • “During FY2004, the US Department of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) conducted more than 2,500 export investigations involving violations of the Arms Export Control Act, International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), Export Administration Regulations (EAR), Inter national Emergency Economic Powers Act, and the Trading With the Enemy Act. These investigations resulted in 146 arrests, 97 criminal indictments, and 79 criminal convictions.”

Early reports from NACIC/ONCIX blanked out the names of countries suspected or known to be engaging in foreign industrial espionage against the USA; however, later editions began publishing lists. The countries mentioned in early reports were Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, China,Cuba, Georgia, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Moldova,  Russia, Syria, Taiwan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

In the 2000 Annual Report, respondents to the NACIC survey of a few (about a dozen) Fortune 500 companies reported that the top countries involved in industrial espionage cases involving their firms were (in order of importance) Japan, Israel, France, Korea, Taiwan, and India.

By 2002, the ONCIX Annual Report commented, “The laundry list of countries seeking US technologies in 2001 was long and diverse. Some 75 countries were involved in one or more suspicious incidents. The most active countries in economic espionage, according to DSS data, were an interesting mix of rich and poor and “friend” and foe. Many of the richest nations aggressively sought the latest in advanced technologies both to upgrade their already formidable military infrastructures—particularly command, control, and communications—and to make their already sophisticated industries even more competitive with the United States. Most of the poorer countries, however, continued to exhibit a preference for older ‘off the shelf’ hardware and software to renovate their existing defensive systems and to develop countermeasures to provide them battlefield advantage. The search for lower technology goods by these less developed countries probably reflected their desire to bring in technologies that could be more easily integrated into their existing military structures; a number of these countries were probably not capable of utilizing the most sophisticated US technologies.”

Major Article on US Intellectual Property Theft By India in Computerworld (Reference)

Source code stolen from U.S. software company in India

Jolly Technologies blamed an insider for the theft

By John Ribeiro in Computerworld
August 5, 2004 12:00 PM ET

IDG News Service – Jolly Technologies, a division of U.S. company Jolly Inc., reported yesterday that an insider at its research and development center in Mumbai stole portions of the source code and confidential design documents relating to one of its key products. As a result, the company has halted all development at the center. 
Jolly Technologies is a vendor of labeling and card software for the printing industry. It set up its R&D facility in Mumbai less than three months ago, according to a statement from the parent company. 
The company said that according to a report obtained from its branch in India, a recently hired software engineer used her Yahoo e-mail account, which now allows 100MB of free storage space, to upload and ship the copied files out of the research facility. The company detected the theft and is trying to prevent the employee from further distributing the source code and other confidential information. 
The vast majority of U.S.-based software companies require their employees to sign an employment agreement that prohibits them from carrying the company’s source code out of a development facility or transferring it in any way. 
Though the Indian branch of Jolly Technologies requires employees to sign a similar employment agreement, the sluggish Indian legal system and the absence of intellectual property laws make it nearly impossible to enforce such agreements, the company said. 
Representatives of San Carlos, Calif.-based Jolly Technologies in Mumbai are working closely with local law enforcement authorities, seeking their assistance in taking corrective action against the employee and to prevent such crimes from occurring again. 
The company said it has decided to delay further recruitment and halt development activities in India until better legal safeguards are in place.

BY ACQUISITION OF US COMPANIES

Indian companies step up acquisition of US tech firms

Premium content from Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal by Justin Moresco

Attorney Michael Ioannou traveled to Bangalore, India, in April 2007 to speak at the Confederation of Indian Industry, a national chamber of commerce. Ioannou had spoken to the confederation before, but this time the members had a special request: they wanted him to talk exclusively about Indian companies buying United States businesses.

“That’s a good indication of what’s going on,” said Ioannou, managing partner of the San Jose office of law firm Ropers Majeski Kohn & Bentley PC.

Ioannou represents 20 Indian companies focused on information technology services that are doing business in the U.S. At least half of them are looking to buy American companies.

Ioannou’s experience with India’s business expansion abroad isn’t unusual. Spurred by strong economic growth in India, a weakening U.S. dollar and the desire to grow globally, Indian companies increasingly are buying U.S. ones to gain local-market footholds and improve their competitiveness worldwide.

The trend, which started a few years ago and has steadily gained momentum, has been buoyed by loosened restrictions on the flow of capital in and out of India. “They see the U.S. as a major market and a major center of talent,” said Arun Kumar, head of KPMG LLP’s U.S.-India practice that is based in Silicon Valley. “It’s the same reason U.S. companies have been going to India.”

KPMG’s U.S.-India practice, which offers audit, tax and advisory services to Indian and U.S. companies with mutual investment interests, has seen its revenue double in the past year, Kumar said. Most of that growth has been from Indian businesses looking to move into the American market.

There were 93 acquisitions of U.S. companies by Indian businesses in 2007, up from just six in 2003, according to Mergermarket Ltd. and Virtus Global Partners. About 46 percent of deals since 2001 were for IT services companies. The second-largest sector — medical, including pharmaceutical and biotech companies — accounted for 9 percent of deals.

HCL Technologies, an Indian IT services company with its U.S. subsidiary based in Sunnyvale, is an example of this trend. HCL announced in February it was buying Seattle-based Capital Stream Inc. The U.S. business provides lending automation solutions to banks and finance companies. HCL bought the company for $40 million.

And in the past three years, Indian industrial conglomerate Mahindra Group bought a majority stake in Milpitas-based Bristlecone Ltd., a supply-chain consulting company, and Indian IT company Larsen & Toubro Infotech Ltd. bought San Jose-based GDA Technologies Inc., an electronic design services company. “They’re looking at complementary U.S.-based business,” Ioannou said. “It’s easier to differentiate yourself as an India service provider if you have services already being used by U.S. companies.”

But it’s not just U.S. companies being gobbled up. Last year, India’s Tata Steel Ltd. bought Britain’s Corus Group PLC in a multibillion-dollar deal and became the world’s fifth-largest steel company.

Kumar, who expects the trend to grow in the near future, said small and mid-sized IT services companies in Silicon Valley with “distinctive domain knowledge and customer relationships” will be the most likely targets for Indian businesses on the hunt. He also said there has been activity in the pharmaceutical industry.

No Comments

US & EUROPE’S Ostrich-like attitude towards Indians takeover of strategic businesses-I: Democratic India can do no harm, a false assumption?

 

Hypocrasy, thy name is India. This nation starves its people, while its expatriates and businessmen suck the blood of Western economies. The downfall of Western economies have been brought about by expatrate Indian businessmen, scientists, IT  persons, and the secret mandir based strategies of Hindu communities in US, Britain, and Europe.  Poor Jews have gotten a bad rap. Hindus are the real money gouging leeches. US economy has been milked dry by Indian IT companies, Dot.com and call centers. Western businesses have been taken over by Indian from cars to pharmaceuticals.  New Jersey boasts of Dr.Reddy and Ranbaxy, two Indian pharmaceutical  companies. Like the casteism in India, Indian companies are staffed by Indians with token sprinkling of a few European Americans. Dr.Reddy, Ranbaxy, and Lupin are staffed by a significant number of Indians.  Indians do not Anglos or European or African Americans.  African or Chinese Americans are almost non-existent in these companies. American economy is in the strangle-hold of Hindu, “”banya,” mentality. “One of the many crushing burdens for India‘s poor bear is debt; unable to make ends meet, they turn to traditional moneylenders. They are willing to extend credit, but at unconscionably high rates – sometimes exceeding 80%, and keeping borrowers in lifelong penury. Popular cinema and classic literature tells many pathos-filled narratives of India’s poor caught in that karmic cycle of poverty. Those stories inevitably end in tragedy.”

WHERE IS THE WEALTH OF USA AND EUROPE GOING ? Please see for your self…below: This wealth was not accummulated in India, rather, it was generated through a strangle-hold of US, British, and European economies. US, Great Britain, and Europe, along with the rest of the world are sufferring dire economic hardships, while India is shining, due to the efforts of its sons like…

Lifestyles of the rich and famous

Mukesh Ambani (Forbes rich list rank 1)
Legend has it that Mukesh Ambani, India’s richest man likes his dosas from only one place – the Mysore Cafe, a small little place in Matunga, Mumbai’s Tamil heartland. As for the owners of the cafe, they talk of him in tones priests reserve for patron saints. Understandable! After all, he is their most celebrated customer. Ambani has a soft corner for wildlife as well. So much so that a couple of years ago, he commissioned a huge two volume encyclopedia on Indian wildlife. It went out to academics, researchers, wildlife enthusiasts and people in the media. He is also building what is perhaps the world’s most expensive home at USD 1.2 billion complete with a movie theatre to watch the Bollywood flicks he loves so much.

Anil Ambani (Forbes rich list rank 3)
The younger Ambani is a fitness freak and his passion for running is well documented. He’s a regular on the marathon circuit and his running mates include a canteen boy who works at the State Bank of India in Nariman Point. He’s also seen at Mumbai’s Mahalakshmi Race Course with his children where they enjoy horse rides. Anil Ambani is up every day by 4:00 a.m. and reads every scrap of information published while he was sleeping before he hits the road.

Azim Premji (Forbes rich list rank 4)
A movie buff, he often turns to his business heads for advice on what titles to pick. He likes to trek as well. Very conscientious about the environment, he is now in the market for a hybrid car.

Shashi Ruia (Forbes rich list rank 5)
Extremely media shy, he is closest to younger brother Ravi Ruia. And when the media does get him for that rare interview, he insists the pictures used include both of them. Raconteur par excellence, he can hold an audience for as long as he wants to with his witty stories and knack for story-telling.  And yes, he loves his food.

Sunil Mittal (Forbes rich list rank 8)
He is superstitious about the number 23. He was born on a 23rd, got married on the 23rd, and almost always insists on any major announcements being announced on the 23rd. When he is in Delhi, Mittal insists on having lunch with his brothers and closest associates at Bharti’s headquarters where everything about the business is discussed. Over the years, he has also earned a reputation for his sharp sartorial sense.

Anil Agarwal (Forbes rich list rank 11)
He makes no bones about the fact that he’s starry eyed and loves to watch every Hindi film that comes his way. When in Mumbai, he is known to throw unending parties for his buddies at the Taj Mahal hotel, one of his favourite haunts. Also loves to go around on bicycles.

Dilip Shanghvi (Forbes rich list rank 14)
He is almost fanatical in his devotion to the treadmill and never misses a chance to get on it. Shanghvi doesn’t ike parties; in fact he is a rare sighting even at pharmaceutical industry meetings. Instead, he is a homebody and is rarely seen outside the suburb of Andheri in Mumbai where he has a home and the factory. When he likes to take a break, it is usually at Kodaikanal or on the backwaters of Kerala.

Cyrus Poonawalla (Forbes rich list rank 24)
You could say the man hoards horses, but his real collection is a fleet of more than 25 cars kept in Pune. Poonawalla even built a prototype for a sports car during his college days. He’s carefully collected cars that range from custom-built limousines to Rolls Royces to six-door Mercedes. And the craze for cars runs in the blood. Nephew Yohan Poonawalla was the first owner of the Phantom Rolls Royce in India (for Rs 3.5 crore) in 2005.

No Comments

Understanding Indian Poverty through Poverty Indicators:Is India Shining?

 

Is India Shining?

Poverty still remains a challenge for the policy makers in Indiadespite high GDP growth of last decade, progress on the implementation of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and steady decline in the rate of population growth. Despite the commitment of all political parties to remove poverty and scores of government programs, Indiahas not been able to tackle as effectively as, for example, Chinadid. Therefore, it appears that the policy makers don’t have clear understanding of the multidimensional nature of poverty and have remained oblivion to the real depth and extent of poverty. An attempt will be made here to see poverty in light of various poverty indicators so as to get a realistic picture of poverty in India.

Snapshot of Reality

Of the 1.21 billion people of India, only 38 per cent are illiterate, about 420 million poor live in only eight states, almost 250 million people do not have access to basic medical care, around 350 million do not have access to safe drinking water.

That is not all: A whopping 53 per cent of our children are undernourished and 52 per cent of our primary schools have only one teacher for every two classes.

These numbers are very recent (from July 18, 2011 Times of India): India’s Low HDI Ranking

The Official Poverty Line

Poverty and PoliticiansIndia’s official poverty measure, until recently, has been based solely upon the ability to purchase a minimum recommended daily diet of 2,400 kilocalories (kcal) in rural areas where about 70 percent of people live, and 2,100 kcal in urban areas – it did not consider nutrition but only the satiation of hunger. Rural areas usually have higher kcal requirements due to need of greater physical activity. The poverty definition did not take into account the provisions for shelter (housing), healthcare, education, etc. Essentially, it meant that as long as you consume at least 2100 kilocalories daily you are not poor even if you lived on a footpath or in a shabby slum, can’t see a doctor, and can’t even send children to school!

Not surprising, if many people considered it a “starvation line” rather than poverty line. Recently the government accepted the Kelkar Committee’s definition of poverty line that is somewhat broader – it also considers health and education. Though critics are still not pleased, it does offer some improvement. Using this definition, the 2010 data reveal that 32.7% people live in poverty as compared to 37% (25.7% urban and 41.8% rural) obtained from 2005 data. It replaces the 27% figure obtained from the older calorie based poverty line and adds about 5 crore more people among the poor. It only meant that the number of “officially poor” increased to 405 million in March 2011 compared with 370 million in 2005.

Other Poverty Lines

The World Bank estimated that 42% people were surviving on less than 1.25 dollars a day in 2005; compares it with Asian Development Bank’s estimate of 55% based on the 1.35 dollar benchmark. These are significantly higher than the new official estimate of 37% of the population in poverty for the same year. In fact, rural poverty of 41.8% closely matches with the World Bank’s estimate of 42%. Incidentally, a 2 dollar a day poverty line makes over 75% Indians poor.

However, regardless of which number is used to define the poverty line, one only gets an idea of the number of poor and learns nothing about the nature of their poverty or suffering.

Composite Poverty Indices

Income based approach to poverty can not tell any thing about other forms of deprivations poor go through. Poverty is basically a denial of a range of material needs such as nutritious food, safe drinking water, shelter, healthcare, education, etc. Therefore, multidimensional poverty measures provide better understanding of the nature of poverty – at local, regional, national, and world level.

Global Hunger Index (GHI)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is basically a measure of malnutrition and hunger – two biggest enemies of the poor. It is focused on three measures weighted equally:

Proportion of people who are undernourished
Proportion of children under five who are underweight
Child mortality rate

In the recent Global Hunger Index 2010, Indiais among 29 countries with the highest levels of hunger, stunted children, and poorly fed women. It ranked 67th out of 84 developing countries and was way behind China (9th) and Pakistan (52nd). Bangladesh was right after India at 68th position. India’s performance was adversely affected due to high levels of underweight children resulting from the low nutritional and social status of women in the country. In India, 46% children under five are undernourished compared to just 5% in Pakistan. Even the neighboring Nepal (56th)and Sri Lanka (39th) as well as Sudan andNorth Korea did better thanIndia. Such insight is not possible from pure income based poverty lines.

In 2008 when the GHI was applied to 17 individual states ofIndiacovering over 95% of the population, there was a wide variation between states – the best was Punjab and the worst was Madhya Pradesh. 12 states had “alarming” poverty and 1 (Madhya Pradesh) showed “extremely alarming” level of poverty; none of the states was free from “serious” poverty. You may like to explore:

Understanding Indian Poverty through Global Hunger Index

Human Poverty Index (HPI)

The UN’s Human Poverty Index (HPI) is another widely used poverty indicator. It is calculated differently for developing (HPI-1) and developed (HPI-2) countries and the two are not comparable. It focuses on lack of three basic dimensions of poverty:

Longevity
Knowledge
Standard of living

For the developing countries, the first deprivation relates to survival – the likelihood of death before the age of 40. The second relates to education – those who are excluded from reading and communication (the level of illiteracy). And the third dimension incorporates a measure of standard of living – percentages of people without lack of safe drinking water and undernourished children.

Of the 182 countries ranked in 2009,Indiawas located at the 134 position much behind China at position 92. Afghanistan and Niger occupied the bottom two spots. The country with best HPI were Norway followed by Australia and Iceland at 2 and 3 rank; Japan at 10, US at 13 and UK at 21. Pakistan was ranked somewhat below at 141, if that can be taken as solace. Bhutan and Laos did better than India on this index.

From 2010, HPI has been replaced by a better and more comprehensive poverty measure, the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) which is described below.

Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

In July 2010, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the UKbased Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) came up with a new measure of poverty, called Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which will replace the HPI. The new measure attempts to go beyond income poverty and gives a broader understanding of different types of deprivation the poor may face.

It is more comprehensive than the HPI and incorporates ten weighted indicators that measure education, health and standard of living. The Indicators used are:

Education: Years of schooling and child enrollment (education) (each with 1/6 weight-age);
Health: Child mortality and nutrition (each with 1/6 weight-age);
Standard of Living: Electricity, flooring, drinking water, sanitation, cooking fuel and assets (each with 1/18 weight-age).

The MPI reflects both the extent of poverty and its intensity and throws up some new light on Indian poverty. A person is poor in this index if he is deprived on at least 30% weighted indicators. By this definition, 55% of India is poor, twice the official figure of 27% (which now stands revised to 32.7% for 2010 data and new poverty line definition), and almost 20% of Indians are deprived on 6 of the 10 indicators.

Comparing MPI ranks of individual Indian states with other countries, MPI suggests that there are more poor people (421 million) in the eight Indian states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal than in the 26 poorest African countries combined (410 million).

MPI was also calculated for individual states of India and compared with MPIs of the 103 other developing countries. It revealed that the magnitude of regional differences within India almost range from that of a reasonably well off Indonesiato that of a desperately poor Somalia.

State with the best MPI is Kerala that resembles Paraguay and Philippines, next best is Goa, which is close to Indonesia, Punjab’s MPI is similar to that of the central American nation of Guatemala while HP is close to the north African Morocco, and TN is akin to Ghana, a sub-Saharan nation. Amongst the low performers, MPI of MP is similar to DR Congo and Rwanda, while Bihar and Jharkhand have the worst MPI and compare with Somalia.

In also points to the fact that world wide South Asia has the highest levels of poverty: 51% percent of the population of Pakistan is poor, 58% in Bangladesh, and 65% in Nepal; not very different from 55% in India.

This multidimensional index has already been adapted for official use in Mexico; Chile and Colombia are considering it. Hope Indian policy planners will begin to think on similar lines soon.

Conclusion

The composite indices are able to better capture the nature, extent and depth of poverty compared with the income or single dimensional indicators. Hence, their use should be encouraged to utilize their diagnostic capability in the policy and decision making. Looking at all the above, it appears fair to say that about one-third to half of Indian population can be safely labeled “poor” who are severely deprived of even the most basic necessities of life.

References

No Comments


Skip to toolbar